Myiases are infestations with dipteran larvae in both necrosed and living tissues, the food source of these insects. These illnesses occur in warm humid climates, and are most frequent in developing countries. We assessed the epidemiological aspects and the influence of climate on the occurrence of myiases and the bioagents in patients admitted to the federal Hospital do Andaraí in Rio de Janeiro from February 2007 to 2008. The influence of abiotic factors (temperature, humidity, and rainfall) on the incidence of myiases was investigated by using the Pearson's correlation test. Of the 40 patients studied, the prevalence of myiases was higher in adults, particularly in the 40 to 65 year-old (37.5%) African descent males (57.5%). Most of the injuries were caused by trauma (62.5%). Some patients made use of licit (50%) and illicit drugs (17.2%). The occurrence of myiases was not affected by the abiotic factors investigated. The cases reported here were treated in only one hospital, indicating that the disease is relatively common. The most frequent bioagent was Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel), but Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius), Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann) and Dermatobia hominis (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) were also detected causing myiases. Chrysomya albiceps is an exotic etiologic agent of myiases.