ABSTRACT Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (FBAld) is an enzyme that catalyzes the cleavage of D-fructose-1,6-phosphate (FBP) to D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P) and dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP), and plays vital role in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. However, molecular characterization and functional roles of FBAld remain unknown in sago palm. Here we report a modified CTAB-RNA extraction method was developed for the isolation of good quality RNA (RIN>8) from sago leaves and the isolation of FBAld cDNA from sago palm. The isolated sago FBAld (msFBAld) cDNA has total length of 1288 bp with an open reading frame of 1020 bp and a predicted to encode for a protein of 340 amino acid resides. The predicted protein shared a high degree of homology with Class-I FBAld from other plants. Meanwhile, the msFBAld gene spanned 2322 bp and consisted of five exons. Conserved domain search identified fifteen catalytically important amino acids at the active site and phylogenetic tree revealed localization of msFBAld in the chloroplast. A molecular 3D-structure of msFBAld was generated by homology modeling and a Ramachandran plot with 86.7% of the residues in the core region, 13.4% in the allowed region with no residues in the disallowed region. The modeled structure is a homotetramer containing an (/(-TIM-barrel at the center. Superimposition of the model with Class-I aldolases identified a catalytic dyad, Lys209-Glu167, which could be involved in the Schiff's base formation and aldol condensation. Apart from that, overproduction of the recombinant msFBAld in Escherichia coli resulted in increased tolerance towards salinity.
Amylase is recognized as one of the important commercial enzymes. This group of enzymes has the ability in hydrolyzing starch into smaller oligosacharides. The present work aimed to determine the optimum fermentation conditions for maximum production of crude amylase enzyme by Aspergillus flavus NSH9 employing response surface methodology (RSM).Central composite design (CCD) was applied to determine the optimal fermentation condition with respect to the four main process parameters such as temperature, initial moisture content, pH and the incubation period. Solid state fermentation (SSF) was performed using 5.0 g of sago hampas inoculated with 1x107sporesmL-1following the experimental design obtained using CCD and further optimized by RSM. The initial moisture, pH and temperature showed significant effect on the amylase production (p<0.05). The maximum amylase activity produced was achieved and recorded as 1.055 ± 0.03U mL-1after four days of fermentation period with 100% (v/v) moisture holding capacity, pH 6.5 and temperature at 28°C. The optimum fermentation conditions for amylase production was determined with A. flavusNSH9 on sago hampas.
Four fungal isolates, SD12, SD14, SD19 and SD20 isolated from the aged sawdust grew on agar plates supplemented with PCP up to a concentration of 100 mg L-1. At high PCP concentration, isolate SD12 showed the highest radial growth rate of 10 mm day-1, followed by SD14 and SD19 both with 4.5 mm day-1 and SD20 with 4.2 mm day-1. Ultrastructural study on the effect of PCP on the PCP tolerant fungi using scanning electron microscope showed that high concentration of PCP caused the collapse of both fungal hyphae and spores. Among the four PCP tolerant fungi examined, isolate SD12 showed the least structural damage at high PCP concentration of 100 mg L-1. This fungal isolate was further characterized and identified as Cunninghamella sp. UMAS SD12. Preliminary PCP biodegradation trial performed in liquid minimal medium supplemented with 20 mg L-1 of PCP using Cunninghamella sp. UMAS SD12 showed that the degradation up to 51.7% of PCP in 15 days under static growth condition.