Drug use in Mexico has been on the rise since the 1970s. Nonetheless, this problem has exhibited important variations in the different regions of Mexico. To document these trends, the National Institute of Psychiatry Ramón de la Fuente (INP) has performed household surveys on addictions in different Mexican cities. In the 1970s and early 1980s surveys were conducted in the following cities: Mexico City, La Paz, Baja California Sur; Mexicali, Baja California Norte; Monterrey, Nuevo León; San Luis Potosí, San Luis Potosí; and Puebla, Puebla, among others. The first national survey in urban population was carried out in 1 988, and was repeated in 1993 and 1998, while the first national survey to included rural population was conducted in 2002, which is being followed by another study currently in the field. The student population has also been extensively studied, and has been included in three national drug surveys and studies performed in different entities. Antecedents Results from these surveys show that drug use has not increased in a uniform fashion throughout the Mexican Republic and both student and household surveys have demonstrated higher rates in the northwestern region of the country comprising the states of Baja California, Sonora and Chihuahua, which have exhibited above-average drug use on comparison with the remaining regions of the country. The most frequently consumed drug by the population is marihuana. The 1988 national household survey registered a rising prevalence in use of 2.9% in Mexican population aged 12-65 years of individuals who had used drugs at some time during their lifetime; in 1993 this prevalence increased to 3.32% and in 1998 to 4.70%; while in 2002 the percentage demonstrated a slight decrease to 3.48%. In 1988, the second place in drug preferences of the population was inhalants with a prevalence of drug use at some time during their lifetime of 0.76%; by 1993, the second place was occupied by cocaine. Prevalence of use of the latter was 0.33% in 1988; by 1993, cocaine increased to 0.56% and to 1.45% in 1998, presenting a slight decrease in use in 2002 (1.23%). From 1988-2002 non-prescribed medical drugs consumed were found in the third place in population preference. Objective This article compared drug use rates observed in three cities on or near Mexico's northern border with the U. S.: Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua; Tijuana, Baja California Norte, and Monterrey, Nuevo León, were studied as part of the 1 998 national survey on addictions by selecting independent representative samples of these localities and with a new survey of these entities in 2005. Method The 1998 national survey of addictions was carried out in a representative sample of Mexican urban population (in localities of 2500 inhabitants). Independent samples were drawn from inhabitants living in several cities throughout Mexico. In this article we report the drug-use trends for three of these cities (Ciudad Juarez, Monterrey and Tijuana) by comparing the rates observed in 1998 with the results of a new wave of household surveys conducted in 2005 in the same cities using comparable methodology. Samples in both periods included population 12-65 years of age residing in households. Sample design was stratified by means of the following: several stages with localities (Áreas Geoestadísticas Básicas, AGEBS, its acronym in Spanish, census tracts); blocks of houses within the selected localities; segments of houses within sample blocks, and one individual per household as the selection unit in each stage. Sample size in Tijuana was 466 and 553 in 1998 and 2005, respectively, while sample sizes for Ciudad Juarez were 472 in 1998 and 606 in 2005, and for Monterrey this was 637 in 1998 and 675 in 2005, and the non-response rate was 23% in 1 998 and 20.3% in 2005. Instruments for obtaining information employed in both time frames considered were similar. Two types of questionnaires were administered: a household questionnaire that included sociodemographic information on all household inhabitants in the sample and their housing conditions and an standardized individual questionnaire administered in a face-to-face interview that collected information on the following: prevalence and use patterns of tobacco, alcohol, five types of illegal drugs (marihuana, cocaine, heroin, hallucinogens, amphetamine-type stimulants and other drugs); four types of medical pharmaceuticals utilized without a prescription (narcotics, stimulants, tranquilizers and sedatives), determining consequences and services utilization. In this article tobacco and alcohol use is not reported. This questionnaire has been extensively tested and used in previous surveys. Interviewers were persons academically prepared in the Social Sciences and trained in the logistics of the several survey stages and extensively supervised during field work. Results Highest rates of use were observed in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez in contrast with Monterrey, which had lower rates. When use of any drug was considered, an increase in lifetime use from 1998-2005 was observed in all three cities; when use during the past year was contemplated, an increase was observed from 1998-2005 from 2.8-4.8% in the case of Ciudad Juarez and in Monterrey from 1.3%-2.0%, while these rates for Tijuana decreased from 5.4%-4.01%. Reports of use during the previous month fell in Tijuana from 4.4%-2.81 % and in Monterrey this decreased from 1.1 %-0.71 %, while in Ciudad Juarez drug use rates during the previous month increased from 2.4%-3.24%. It is important to mention that there was no statistical significance in any of the different prevalences types. Lifetime use of medical drugs without prescription increased in Tijuana and in Monterrey, while in Ciudad Juarez this remained stable from 1998-2005. In 2005, use of medical drugs decreased in Ciudad Juarez from 1.2%-0.88% and in Tijuana from 1.3%-1 .28%, while in Monterrey no use was detected in 1998, but 0.48% of interviewees did reported drug use in 2005. Previous-month use increased in Tijuana from 0.7%-1 .28% and in Monterrey this ranged from no use in 1998 to 0.48% by contrast in Ciudad Juarez previous-month drug use fell from 1.2-0.88%. In referring only to use of any illegal drug (excluding medical pharmaceutical), lifetime use increased in all three cities from 1998-2005; lifetime use doubled in Monterrey and Ciudad Juarez, while use during the previous year decreased in Tijuana from 4.4%-3.25% and increased in Ciudad Juarez from 1.6%-3.98% and in Monterrey from 1.3%-1 .52%. Prior-month increased in Ciudad Juarez from 1.2%-2.42%, while this exhibited a decrease in Tijuana from 3.9%-2.05% and in Monterrey from 1.1%-0.23%. Data also indicate that a high proportion of individuals in Monterrey have used only one drug; these percentages rose in the 1998-2005 period from 3.7%-8.96% numbers of the poly-drug users doubled in Tijuana from 4%-8.44% and in Ciudad Juarez from 3.2%-7.43%; in Tijuana this was due to an increase among males, and in Ciudad Juarez the number of poly-drug users increased in both genders.
El consumo de drogas en México ha ido en aumento. En la década de 1970, el Instituto Nacional de Psiquiatría realizó las primeras encuestas de hogares sobre el tema de las adicciones en población de distintas ciudades del país: la Ciudad de México, La Paz, B.C.S.; Mexicali, B.C.; Monterrey, N.L.; San Luis Potosí, S.L.P., y Puebla, Pue, entre otras y ha documentado las tendencias del problema y sus variaciones regionales. A nivel nacional se han realizado en hogares cuatro encuestas en 1988, en 1993, en 1998 y en 2002, denominadas <<Encuestas Nacionales de Adicciones>>. Asimismo se han levantado tres encuestas nacionales sobre drogas entre la población estudiantil, las cuales han dado cuenta de que el consumo de drogas no se ha incrementado de manera uniforme en el país, sino que tanto en las encuestas estudiantiles como entre las de adicciones ha resaltado la zona noroccidental, conformada por estados como Baja California, Sonora y Chihuahua, donde se tienen las mayores cifras de consumo de drogas en la República Mexicana. Las encuestas de adicciones indican que la droga que más ha consumido alguna vez en la vida la población urbana de 12 a 65 años es la mariguana, con los siguientes porcentajes: en 1988, 2.99%; en 1993, 3.32%; en 1998, 4.70%; y en la medición de 2002 disminuyó ligeramente a 3.48%. En 1988, el segundo lugar lo ocupaban los inhalables con 0.76%, pero en las demás mediciones ocupa este lugar la cocaína, con 0.56% en 1 993; 1.45% en 1998 y en 2002, 1.23%. En el tercer lugar se encuentran las drogas médicas consumidas sin prescripción desde 1988 hasta 2002. Este artículo presenta una comparación de las prevalencias de uso de drogas en tres ciudades de la Encuesta Nacional de Adicciones de 1998 con respecto a la Encuesta de ciudades de 2005 de las tres ciudades siguientes: Ciudad Juárez, Monterrey y Tijuana. La Encuesta Nacional de Adicciones de 1998 se realizó en una muestra representativa de la población urbana de todo el país (en localidades de más de 2500 habitantes). En esta encuesta, las 32 entidades del país se dividieron en tres regiones y también se obtuvieron muestras en ciudades fronterizas que fueron: Tijuana, Ciudad Juárez y Matamoros y en tres zonas metropolitanas que fueron: La ciudad de México, Guadalajara y Monterrey. La muestra fue de 12015 entrevistas completas. La encuesta de ciudades de 2005 se realizó en cuatro ciudades que fueron: Querétaro, Monterrey, Ciudad Juárez y Tijuana. Sin embargo, para efectos de este trabajo, solamente se comparan las tres últimas. Las dos encuestas tuvieron como objetivo a la población de 12 a 65 años de edad. En ambas se aplicaron dos cuestionarios: el de hogar con datos socioeconómicos y otro individual, cuyas secciones de consumo de drogas fueron iguales. El muestreo en ambas encuestas fue multietápico, probabilístico y estratificado, y en la última etapa se seleccionó a un individuo de cada hogar con un rango de edad de 12 a 65 años. Se obtuvo una no respuesta de 23% en 1998 y de 20.3% en 2005.
Summary: Alcoholism is among the main worldwide public health problems and it affects men and women differentially. Several studies show that, when compared to men, women develop more severe dependence, more family and social consequences and experience more difficulties to stop drinking. Differences on the impact that substance abuse has on women’s life and health are related to the roles, functions and social expectancies placed on them concerning the continuity and care for the rest of the family. For this reason, alcohol intake constitutes a special problem since it affects the health of both the mother and her offspring. Alcoholic women have a higher risk of suffering obstetric complications during pregnancy, such as placenta insufficiency, intrauterine development retardation, early placenta detachment, spontaneous abortion, stillbirth and pre-term delivery. Alcohol abuse during pregnancy is also associated with low weight offspring, congenital abnormalities and further behavioral and learning difficulties. In some countries, drinking during pregnancy is considered an offense which requires legal action. In some cases, women may be put in jail until delivery and lactation. In other regions, children welfare authorities view drinking during pregnancy as a form of aggression or neglect. Such measures prevent women from searching prenatal attention which in its case might lead to severe health consequences for the mother, the embryo and the society. Estimates of alcohol consumption during pregnancy around the world vary considerably and figures range from 4.1% to 83%. However, the variation might be related to the amount of alcohol units and the period of time considered in each measurement. A case-control study in Naucalpan, Mexico, found that 11% of the women interviewees admitted having drank during pregnancy, 5% of the mothers in the control group and 2% of the case group stopped drinking during lactation. Still, any of the considered variables was found to predict postnatal mortality through logistic regression analyses. Another study performed with data from the 1988 National Survey on Addictions documents that alcohol intake during pregnancy is a risk factor for congenital abnormalities (OR=3.4). The available data about the risks associated with drinking during pregnancy in Mexico comes from research in general population, while little is known about clinical population. For this reason, the objectives of this article are: 1. to analyze the characteristics of alcohol consumption in a group of women who sought help to stop drinking, 2. to identify family history of alcohol abuse in this group and 3. to explore the consequences of drinking on their offspring. In this case study, interviews were held with 200 women who attended two treatment agencies in Mexico City due to alcohol consumption problems. The questionnaire used includes the Spanish version of the CIDI-SAM and other sections to explore drinking during pregnancy and lactation, as well as family history of alcoholism. Selection criteria were: 1. aged 18 or older, 2. seeking help for the first time, 3. physical and mental conditions that would allow to answer the questionnaire, 4. having drank during the previous year. Women agreed to participate voluntarily once the objectives of the study were explained and confidentiality assured. Personnel of both treatment agencies administered the questionnaire and interviews lasted 60 minutes average. The diagnostics of alcohol dependence were obtained according to DSM-IV criteria. Data were analyzed with the statistical program SPSS v. 10, for Windows. A total of 134 women reported having been pregnant at least once, and 57.5% of them admitted having drank alcoholic beverages during pregnancy. Age ranged from 18 to 61 years (mean=40), 50% were married or living with a partner, 18% were divorced or separated and 13% had never married. The number of children ranged from 1 to 12 with a mean of 3. High percentages of family history of alcohol abuse were found among this group (93.5%): mostly the father (72.7%), siblings (63.6%) and the partner (48.1%). Significant differences in family history of alcohol use were found between women who drank during pregnancy and those who did not drink. Around 66% reduced alcohol intake after the confirmation of pregnancy; however, 26% continued drinking as usual and 6.5% started drinking at this period. The mean number of drinks consumed per drinking occasion during pregnancy was 3.5, being the traditional beverage pulque (48.8%) and beer (34.9%) the preferred beverages. In addition, 9.2% also took medical drugs. At least three out of the seven criteria proposed in DSM-IV for alcohol dependency were met by 70.3% of the women who drank during pregnancy. More severe dependence was found among the women who drank during pregnancy than among the group of women who abstained. As to the consequences of drinking, 12% of the women reported spontaneous abortion, 13.7% pre-term deliveries, 5.5% stillbirth, 6.8% congenital abnormalities and 13.7% low birth weight. When comparing women who drank and those who did not during pregnancy, significant differences were found in the percentage of pre-term deliveries (X2=5.63; p=0.01) and congenital abnormalities (X2=4.22; p=0.05). A number of logistic regression models was assessed using three independent variables: drinking during pregnancy, frequency of alcohol consumption and severity of dependence. Dependent variables, on the other hand, were spontaneous abortion, pre-term delivery, stillbirth, congenital abnormalities, low birth weight, alcohol use by the offspring and drinking problems in the offspring. The analysis shows that alcohol consumption during pregnancy is related to pre-term deliveries (OR=7.9), and alcohol use by the offspring (OR=2.1). Severity of dependence is related as well to low birth weight (OR=3.7) and further drinking problems in the offspring (OR=2.7). Likewise, drinking every day or almost every day is also related to later drinking problems in their children (OR=2.9). Finally, having siblings who drink (OR=2.11) and meeting alcohol dependency (OR=2.21) criteria are factors that predict alcohol consumption during pregnancy. These results are consistent with other studies that report positive family history of alcohol abuse among alcoholic women. The proportion of women who stopped drinking during pregnancy (42.5%) is higher than the one reported by other authors. Prevalence of spontaneous abortion, stillbirth and congenital abnormalities are higher than the prevalence reported among general population. These findings suggest that women with severe dependence face more difficulties to stop drinking during pregnancy in spite of the social stigma imposed to future mothers who drink. The results provide some elements that support an association of alcohol abuse during pregnancy with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Nevertheless, the impact of fetal alcohol exposure responds to a complex model where a number of interacting factors, longitudinal reaserch is needed to determine the weight of each participating variable and the underlying relationship between them.
OBJECTIVE. To determine the prevalence of alcohol and drug consumption and its relationship to sociodemographic variables, leisure activities, antisocial behavior, family norms and conflicts, among others. MATERIAL AND METHODS. Data derive from a representative survey of 1 929 students of junior high and high school, conducted in 1996 in the city of Pachuca, Hidalgo, Mexico. Of these, 44.9% were boys and 52.5% were girls; mean age was 14. A self-applied questionnaire, prepared by the WHO together with some countries, among them Mexico, was completed by the studied subjects, and included indicators of alcohol and drug consumption. RESULTS. Of the total sample, 47.9% had tried alcohol, and 12.6% had drunk large quantities -5 drinks or more per sitting- during the month previous to the survey. Preferred drinks are beer and "coolers", which they buy at shops where no identification is required and drink at home or at friend's homes. With respect to drugs, 5.1% had tried illegal or medical drugs without prescription, in particular inhalants, marihuana and tranquilizers. More boys consumed illegal drugs, and more girls medical drugs without prescription. Boys, who are also older, more frequently consumed alcohol and drugs and were more often employed during the previous year at part-time jobs. High alcohol level and drug consumers were characterized by their frequent report of being bored in their free time, drinking with friends and enrolling in antisocial behavior. With respect to family norms, they follow them less and show less interest in doing so. An elevated percentage informed that their parents fight frequently, that they have sought help for this reason and have intended separation. CONCLUSIONS. Groups who drink more alcohol and use other drugs, in contrast with non-users, presented more behavioral problems, more outdoors activities that included drinking with friends, more antisocial behavior, had a distant relationship with their families sharing few activities with them, an showed little interest in following family rules and perceiving conflicts within their families.
OBJETIVO. Determinar la prevalencia del consumo de drogas y bebidas alcohólicas entre estudiantes, así como la relación de este consumo con variables sociodemográficas, tiempo libre, actos antisociales, normas y conflictos familiares, entre otras. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS. Los datos se derivan de una encuesta representativa de 1 929 estudiantes de enseñanza media y media superior de la ciudad de Pachuca, estado de Hidalgo, México, levantada en 1996, de los cuales 44.9% son hombres y 52.5% mujeres, con una media de edad de 14 años. Se utilizó un cuestionario autoaplicable, que incluye indicadores de consumo de drogas y alcohol elaborados por algunos países, entre ellos México, con la Organización Mundial de la Salud. RESULTADOS. El 47.9% ha probado bebidas alcohólicas; 12.6% bebieron cantidades considerables -cinco copas o más por ocasión- durante el mes anterior a la encuesta. Las bebidas preferidas son la cerveza y los coolers; el alcohol lo compraron principalmente en tiendas donde no les piden identificación y lo consumen en su casa o en la de otras personas. El 5.1% ha consumido drogas, sobre todo inhalables, mariguana y tranquilizantes. Una cifra mayor de varones consume drogas ilegales, y las mujeres, medicamentos sin prescripción. Un número superior de hombres toma más cantidades de alcohol y consume drogas, tienen mayor edad y trabajaron de medio tiempo durante el año anterior a la encuesta. Los consumidores de drogas y de altas cantidades de alcohol se distinguieron porque un número considerable informó que se aburría en su tiempo libre, se va a beber con sus amigos o ha cometido actos antisociales. Respecto a la familia, manifiestan cumplir menos con las normas parentales y muestran menor interés en hacerlo. Asimismo, un porcentaje más elevado informó que sus padres pelean con frecuencia, han pedido ayuda por esa razón y han intentado separarse. CONCLUSIONES. Los estudiantes que beben cantidades elevadas de alcohol y los consumidores de otras drogas, a diferencia de lo que sucede con los abstemios, presentaron más problemas al destinar su tiempo libre a actividades como irse a beber con amigos, exhibir más conductas antisociales y tener un distanciamiento de la familia que se refleja en la baja participación en actividades compartidas, en el desinterés por cumplir con sus normas y en la percepción de conflictos al interior de la misma.
Objective. To determine the prevalence of sexual abuse among high school (secondary and preparatory) students, male and female, throughout Mexico, and its relationship with drug abuse. Material and methods. Data were obtained from the National Survey of Drug Use in Schools applied in November and December, 1991. A total of 61 779 students, 51.8% men and 47.1% women, with a mean age of 14.4 years completed the self-applied questionnaire. Sexual abuse was explored from the perspective of the abusers and of the victims. Results. The prevalence of sexual abuse in adolescent victims was 4.3% and no statistically significant differences were found between sexes. The prevalence of sexual aggressors was 2.5%. Men coerced someone else in a higher proportion than women. Adolescent women experienced sexual abuse at a younger age than men and they also reported a higher percentage of intrafamily abuse. Men reported friends as the most frequent aggressors. Victims and aggressors of both sexes reported a significantly higher drug consumption than students without these antecedents. Conclusions. The differences in the experience of sexual abuse between men and women are described. In particular, the fact that sexual abuse in men mainly occurs outside the family sphere, while in women it is mainly within the family and at a younger age than in men. Additionally, the need for further research focusing on the consequences on mental health of infantile and adolescent sexual abuse and drug consumption is emphasized, considering the characteristics of each gender.
Objetivo. Determinar la prevalencia de abuso sexual en estudiantes de secundaria y preparatoria, hombres y mujeres, de todo el país, así como su relación con el consumo de drogas. Material y métodos. Los datos fueron obtenidos de la Encuesta Nacional de Uso de Drogas en la Comunidad Escolar, llevada a cabo en noviembre y diciembre de 1991, en la que fueron encuestados un total de 61 779 alumnos, 51.8% hombres y 47.1% mujeres, con una media de edad de 14.4 años. Se utilizó un instrumento autoaplicado, en el que el abuso sexual fue explorado tanto desde la perspectiva de quienes lo han experimentado -víctimas-, como desde quienes lo han ejercido -agresores. Resultados. La prevalencia de adolescentes víctimas de abuso sexual fue de 4.3%, y no se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre sexos. La prevalencia de agresores fue de 2.5%; los adolescentes varones habían coercionado sexualmente a otra persona en proporción significativamente mayor que las mujeres. Estas sufrieron el abuso a edades menores en un porcentaje significativamente más alto que los hombres. Asimismo, notificaron una proporción más elevada de abusos por parte de familiares, mientras que los hombres mencionaron principalmente a los amigos como los agresores más frecuentes. Tanto las víctimas como los agresores de ambos sexos, reportaron un consumo de drogas significativamente mayor que los estudiantes sin estos antecedentes. Conclusiones. Se enfatizan las diferencias en la experiencia de abuso sexual de mujeres y hombres como víctimas y como agresores. En particular, se discute el hecho de que el abuso sexual en varones sea principalmente extrafamiliar, así como el riesgo mayor que tienen las mujeres de ser víctimas de abuso sexual intrafamiliar en edades tempranas. Asimismo, se plantea la necesidad de abordar las consecuencias, en la salud mental, del abuso sexual infantil y adolescente y del consumo de drogas, considerando las particularidades de cada género.