ABSTRACT Purpose: Enucleation of a large prostate is the best surgical choice for patients refractory to clinical treatment (1,2). Since the first robot-assisted simple prostatectomy (RASP) was described (3,4), some technical modifications (5–7) and different approaches to reach the adenoma have been proposed (8,9). The aim of this video is to demonstrate three different techniques of RASP. Materials and Methods: The first procedure begins with a transversal incision over the bladder neck, the second is a transvesical approach and the last one is a Retzius-sparing RASP. All techniques were performed with a vesico-urethral anastomosis. Results: Three patients underwent RASP, each one with a different approach. Patients presented mean age of 66±4.4 years, PSA baseline level of 7.8±3ng/mL, IPSS score of 17.7±4.5, maximum urine flow of 8.3±1.5mL/seg and 122.3±11.2cm3 of prostate volume. The mean operative time was 63±8 minutes, estimated blood loss of 106.7±11.5mL, prostate weight of the surgical specimen of 106.3±8 grams and 1 day of length of stay. No continuous bladder irrigation was required and there was no complication. The mean postoperative PSA and IPSS were 0.7±0.3ng/mL, 4.7±1.5. The maximum urine flow raised to 20±4.4mL/seg. Conclusions: RASP with vesico-urethral anastomosis allowed minimal blood loss, short length of stay and great functional outcomes. All the three approaches allowed to perform this technique in a safe way, while showing different alternatives to reach the adenoma.
Abstract An updated inventory of Brazilian seed plants is presented and offers important insights into the country's biodiversity. This work started in 2010, with the publication of the Plants and Fungi Catalogue, and has been updated since by more than 430 specialists working online. Brazil is home to 32,086 native Angiosperms and 23 native Gymnosperms, showing an increase of 3% in its species richness in relation to 2010. The Amazon Rainforest is the richest Brazilian biome for Gymnosperms, while the Atlantic Rainforest is the richest one for Angiosperms. There was a considerable increment in the number of species and endemism rates for biomes, except for the Amazon that showed a decrease of 2.5% of recorded endemics. However, well over half of Brazillian seed plant species (57.4%) is endemic to this territory. The proportion of life-forms varies among different biomes: trees are more expressive in the Amazon and Atlantic Rainforest biomes while herbs predominate in the Pampa, and lianas are more expressive in the Amazon, Atlantic Rainforest, and Pantanal. This compilation serves not only to quantify Brazilian biodiversity, but also to highlight areas where there information is lacking and to provide a framework for the challenge faced in conserving Brazil's unique and diverse flora.
Resumo Um levantamento atualizado das plantas com sementes e análises relevantes acerca desta biodiversidade são apresentados. Este trabalho se iniciou em 2010 com a publicação do Catálogo de Plantas e Fungos e, desde então vem sendo atualizado por mais de 430 especialistas trabalhando online. O Brasil abriga atualmente 32.086 espécies nativas de Angiospermas e 23 espécies nativas de Gimnospermas e estes novos dados mostram um aumento de 3% da riqueza em relação a 2010. A Amazônia é o Domínio Fitogeográfico com o maior número de espécies de Gimnospermas, enquanto que a Floresta Atlântica possui a maior riqueza de Angiospermas. Houve um crescimento considerável no número de espécies e nas taxas de endemismo para a maioria dos Domínios (Caatinga, Cerrado, Floresta Atlântica, Pampa e Pantanal), com exceção da Amazônia que apresentou uma diminuição de 2,5% de endemicidade. Entretanto, a maior parte das plantas com sementes que ocorrem no Brasil (57,4%) é endêmica deste território. A proporção de formas de vida varia de acordo com os diferentes Domínios: árvores são mais expressivas na Amazônia e Floresta Atlântica do que nos outros biomas, ervas são dominantes no Pampa e as lianas apresentam riqueza expressiva na Amazônia, Floresta Atlântica e Pantanal. Este trabalho não só quantifica a biodiversidade brasileira, mas também indica as lacunas de conhecimento e o desafio a ser enfrentado para a conservação desta flora.
The present article aims at contextualizing the first Brazilian experience with compulsory licensing, which functions as a defense mechanism to prevent excessive pricing by holders of patents. According to this mechanism, a government can authorize a third party to explore the patented object (in this case a drug) without previous consent from the patent holder. On May 4, 2007, Brazil officially issued compulsory licensing of the antiretroviral drug efavirenz for public, non-commercial use. Initially, generic versions of the drug were purchased from laboratories in India. The next step was the manufacture of efavirenz by Farmanguinhos, official pharmaceutical laboratory (Fundação Osvaldo Cruz). It is concluded that the decision made by the Brazilian government to issue compulsory licensing of efavirenz nwas correct, taking into account the projected savings of US$ 236.8 until 2012 and the guarantee of availability of efavirenz, the most usual free antiretroviral treatment provided in Brazil.