OBJECTIVES: Feedback is a powerful learning tool, but a lack of appropriate feedback is a very common complaint from learners to teachers. To improve opportunities for feedback on objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs), a modified examiner role, termed the “shadow” examiner, was tested. This study aims to present and analyze comparisons between the “shadow” examiner and the original OSCE examiner format. METHODS: In 2011, experiments were carried out with modifications to the examiner’s role to define the “shadow” examiner format. From February 2012 to May 2014, research was conducted with 415 6th-year medical students. Of these students, 316 were randomly assigned to assessments by both “shadow” and “fixed” examiners. Pearson correlation analysis with linear regression, Student’s t-tests and Bland-Altman plots were the statistical methods used to compare the assessment modes. To strengthen the analysis, checklist items were classified by domain. RESULTS: High correlations between the “shadow” and “fixed” examiners’ global scores were observed. The results of the analysis of specific domains demonstrated higher correlations for cognitive scores and lower correlations for affective scores. No statistically significant differences between the mean examiner global scores were found. The Bland-Altman analysis showed that the “shadow” examiners’ affective scores were significantly higher than those of the “fixed” examiners, but the magnitude of this difference was small. CONCLUSION: The modified examiner role did not lead to any important bias in the students’ scores compared with the original OSCE examiner format. This new strategy may provide important insights for formative assessments of clinical performance.
A study was conducted to evaluate the use of cashew nuts meal (CNM) in diets for sheep, raised in feedlot. Thirty two crossbred animals received concentrates with the same amount of crude protein, but four different levels of CNM (0, 12, 24 and 36%). A factorial 4 x 2 was used, with four levels of CNM and 2 sexes, with four repetitions. Daily weight gain and feed conversion as well as intake of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), neutral detergent fiber(NDF) and ashes were determined by analysis of variance, Duncan statistical test and regression analysis. Intake was estimated as g/animal/day, percentage of body weight (%BW) and g/BW0.75. There were differences in intake of DM, CP and EE when animals were fed concentrates with 0 and 36% of CNM. Also, intake of DM, CP and NDF tended to decrease as the levels of CNM increased in the diet. EE intake increased according to the different CNM levels. The type of diet did not significantly affect either weight gain or feed conversion. Therefore, cashew nut meal can be included up to 24% in the concentrate, but the total diets should not have more than 6% of fat.
O trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar a utilização de concentrados contendo farelo de castanha de caju (FCC) na alimentação de ovinos mantidos em confinamento. Foram testados quatro tipos de concentrados isoprotéicos contendo 0, 12, 24 e 36% de FCC, tendo o concentrado participado com 30% da matéria seca (MS) da dieta total. Foram utilizados 32 ovinos sem raça definida (SRD), machos e fêmeas, em esquema fatorial 4 x 2 (quatro níveis de inclusão de FCC e dois sexos) e quatro repetições. Foram avaliados ganho de peso e conversão alimentar, bem como os consumos de matéria seca (CMS), proteína bruta (CPB), extrato etéreo (CEE) e fibra em detergente neutro (CFDN). Estas variáveis foram analisadas conforme o consumo em g/animal/dia, % do peso vivo (PV) e g/UTM (PV0,75), tendo sido feita a análise de variância com teste de médias e estudo de regressão. Foram observadas diferenças no CMS, CPB e CEE de animais alimentados com dietas com 0 e 36% de FCC, com tendência de diminuição dos consumos de MS, PB e FDN, à medida que se aumentou o FCC na dieta. O consumo de EE elevou-se com a adição FCC às dietas. O ganho de peso e a conversão alimentar foram semelhantes para as quatro dietas fornecidas. Portanto, o FCC deve ser utilizado com um nível de inclusão de 24% do concentrado, não ultrapassando 6% de lipídios na dieta total.