ABSTRACT. The forage palm is one of the main forages of ruminants in semiarid regions. Measurements of leaf area are required in agronomic studies because they are one of the main parameters used to evaluate plant growth. The objective of this study was to validate and define the best models for estimating the area and weight of Giant Sweet clone (Nopalea cochenillifera) forage cladodes in a non-destructive way based on the linear dimensions of length, width and thickness. There were 432 randomly measured cladodes at 550 days after planting. The length, width and thickness of each cladode were measured using a digital calliper. The cladodes were weighed individually. The cladode area was calculated by the gravimetric method. The power regression model was the most efficient method to explain the cladode area as a function of the product of length by width, while the gamma model was the most efficient method to explain the weight of cladodes as a function of the product of length by width and thickness. The power model, R C A ̂ = L W 0.982, and gamma model, W C ̂ = 0.536 T + 0.028 L W, were used to determine the area and weight of Nopalea cochenillifera Giant Sweet clone cladodes, respectively, based on the values of linear dimensions measured independently of the order of the cladode.
ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the association between nutritional status, physical activity, sedentary behavior, diet, and lifestyle in childhood with respiratory diseases during adolescence. Methods: Prospective study conducted in São Caetano do Sul, São Paulo - Brazil, as part of the International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment (ISCOLE). During childhood, indicators of lifestyle (body composition, physical activity, sedentary behavior, diet) and family environment were measured in 2012 and 2013. After five years, participants answered the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire for the diagnosis of respiratory diseases (asthma and/or rhinitis). Analyses were determined by logistic regression. Results: A total of 168 schoolchildren (56% boys) were evaluated, and the prevalence of asthma and rhinitis accounted for 15.5 and 25.6%, respectively. Whole milk consumption (Odds Ratio [OR]=1.24; 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 1.03-1.49), having a television in the bedroom (OR=0.29; 95%CI 0.12-0.71), and attending physical education classes ≥2 times/week (OR=0.30; 95%CI 0.11-0.81) in childhood were associated with the presence of asthma in adolescence. Factors significantly associated with rhinitis were as follows: female participants (OR=2.45; 95%CI 1.20-4.98) and whole milk consumption (OR=1.21; 95%CI 1.04-1.40). Conclusions: Higher consumption of whole milk, not having a television in the bedroom, few physical education classes, and being a girl were factors associated with respiratory diseases. Public policies should be directed toward a healthier lifestyle and the prevention of respiratory diseases.
RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a associação entre estado nutricional, atividade física, comportamento sedentário, dieta e estilo de vida na infância e doenças respiratórias durante a adolescência. Métodos: Estudo prospectivo realizado em São Caetano do Sul, São Paulo, como parte do International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment. Indicadores do estilo de vida (composição corporal, atividade física, comportamento sedentário, dieta) e do ambiente familiar foram mensurados durante a infância, em 2012 e 2013. Após cinco anos, os escolares responderam o questionário do International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) para o diagnóstico de doenças respiratórias (asma e/ou rinite). Análises foram determinadas por meio da regressão logística. Resultados: Foram avaliados 168 escolares (56% meninos), e as prevalências de asma e rinite observadas foram 15,5 e 25,6%, respectivamente. Consumir leite integral (Odds Ratio [OR]=1,24; intervalo de confiança 95% [IC95%] 1,03-1,49), ter televisão no quarto (OR=0,29; IC95% 0,12-0,71) e praticar aulas de educação física ≥2 vezes/semana (OR=0,30; IC95% 0,11-0,81) na infância foram associados com a presença de asma na adolescência. Os fatores significativamente associados à rinite foram: ser do sexo feminino (OR=2,45; IC95% 1,20-4,98) e consumir leite integral (OR=1,21; IC95% 1,04-1,40). Conclusões: Consumir mais leite integral, não ter televisão no quarto, ter tido poucas aulas de educação física e ser do sexo feminino foram fatores associados às doenças respiratórias. Políticas públicas devem ser dirigidas para um estilo de vida mais saudável e a prevenção de doenças respiratórias.
ABSTRACT. This study aimed was the establishment of the genus Brachiaria in the Brazilian semi-arid region. The experiment was conducted from April to June 2016, as a randomized-block experimental design with five treatments and four replicates. Treatments were represented by five Brachiaria cultivars, namely, Marandu, Paiaguás, Piatã, Xaraés and Basilisk. Morphogenetic (leaf appearance rate, leaf elongation rate e stem elongation rate) and structural characteristics (final leaf length, tiller population density e number of leaves per tiller, forage mass, leaf blade mass, stem mass, senescent material mass and leaf:stem ratio) of the forage cultivars were evaluated. Canopy height fitted a linear regression model (P<0,05), with estimated daily increases of 0.50, 0.53, 0.53, 0.54 and 0.56 cm for cvs Basilisk, Marandu, Paiaguás, Piatã and Xaraés, respectively. The number of live leaves in cvs Basilisk and Paiaguás increased linearly (p < 0.05), by 4.3 and 2.8 leaves per tiller, respectively, during the 60-day period. The recommended height at which the growth of Brachiaria cultivars should be interrupted is upon reaching 25 to 35 cm. In the soil-climatic conditions of the Brazilian semi-arid region, the Brachiaria cultivars Basilisk, Marandu, Paiaguás, Piatã and Xaraés are established at 75 days after sowing, which is the recommended time for performing the first harvest or lenient grazing to stimulate tillering.
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of sympathectomy on the myocardium in an experimental model. METHODS: The study evaluated three groups of male Wistar rats: control (CT; n=15), left unilateral sympathectomy (UNI; n=15), and bilateral sympathectomy (BIL; n=31). Sympathectomy was performed by injection of absolute alcohol into the space of the spinous process of the C7 vertebra. After 6 weeks, we assessed the chronotropic properties at rest and stress, cardiovascular autonomic modulation, myocardial and peripheral catecholamines, and beta-adrenergic receptors in the myocardium. The treadmill test consisted of an escalated protocol with a velocity increment until the maximal velocity tolerated by the animal was reached. RESULTS: The bilateral group had higher levels of peripheral catecholamines, and consequently, a higher heart rate (HR) and blood pressure levels. This suggests that the activation of a compensatory pathway in this group may have deleterious effects. The BIL group had basal tachycardia immediately before the exercise test and increased tachycardia at peak exercise (p<0.01); the blood pressure had the same pattern (p=0.0365). The variables related to autonomic modulation were not significantly different between groups, with the exception of the high frequency (HF) variable, which showed significant differences in CT vs UNI. There was no significant difference in beta receptor expression between groups. There was a higher concentration of peripheral norepinephrine in the BIL group (p=0.0001), and no significant difference in myocardial norepinephrine (p=0.09). CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that an extra cardiac compensatory pathway increases the sympathetic tonus and maintains a higher HR and higher levels of peripheral catecholamines in the procedure groups. The increase in HF activity can be interpreted as an attempt to increase the parasympathetic tonus to balance the greater sympathetic activity.
ABSTRACT: Due to their similarity to humans, studies regarding gastric ulcers in pigs have become of great interest. It is known that Helicobacter spp. is related to the occurrence of these ulcers, as they possess a high prevalence in pigs. This study aimed to associate gastric lesions findings naturally occurring in minipigs related to or not related to the presence of Helicobacter spp., through the ultra-rapid urease test and immunohistochemical analysis, reaffirming the disease in swine as a natural biomedical model for human cases. For this, samples of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded gastric tissues from 40 minipigs were obtained at the Laboratório de Morfologia e Patologia Animal (LMPA) in the Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF). Regarding the ultra-rapid urease test, no animal was positive in all regions. However, 18 were positive in at least one: six (15%) were positive in the aglandular region, eight (20%) in the antrum region, 13 (32.5%) in the region of the cardiac gland, and one (2.5%) in the region of the fundic gland. Regarding immunohistochemical analysis, only one animal was positive in all regions, and 32 animals were positive in at least one: four (10%) were positive in the aglandular region, 10 (25%) in the antrum region, 23 (57.5%) in the region of the cardiac gland, and three (7.5%) in the region of the fundic gland. The gastric lesion findings showed a close relationship with Helicobacter spp., enriching the laboratory animal pathologies list. The immunostaining of the bacteria not associated with gastric lesions in certain regions demonstrated the saprophytic and opportunisitic nature of Helicobacter.
RESUMO: Por sua semelhança com a da espécie humana, a úlcera gástrica nos suínos tem despertado muito interesse. Sabe-se que o Helicobacter spp. está relacionado à ocorrência dessas úlceras, apresentando alta prevalência. Este estudo teve como objetivo associar as lesões gástricas, de ocorrência natural em miniporcos, à presença, ou não, de Helicobacter spp., por meio do teste ultra-rápido da urease e da análise imunohistoquímica, reafirmando a enfermidade em suínos como modelo biomédico natural para os casos em humanos. Para este fim, foram utilizados histossetes de tecido gástrico de 40 minipigs obtidos no Laboratório de Morfologia e Patologia Animal (LMPA) da Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF). Em relação ao teste ultra-rápido da urease, nenhum animal foi positivo em todas as regiões, entretanto, 18 foram positivos em pelo menos uma: seis foram positivos na região aglandular, oito na região do antro, 13 na região das glândulas cárdicas e um na região das glândulas fúndicas. Em relação à análise imuno-histoquímica, somente um animal foi positivo em todas as regiões e 32 animais foram positivos em pelo menos uma: quatro foram positivos na região aglandular, 10 na região do antro, 23 na região das glândulas cárdicas e três na região das glândulas fúndicas. As lesões gástricas demonstraram estreita relação com o Helicobacter spp. em miniporcos, enriquecendo a lista de patologias de animais de laboratório. A imunomarcação da bactéria não associada à lesão, em certas regiões gástricas, demonstra seu caráter saprofítico e oportunista.
HIGHLIGHTS Production of lipid nanoemulsions (<100 nm) of industrial interest with low energy demand. The antioxidant properties of babassu oil have been improved and the nanoemulsions are not cytotoxic. Babassu oil is a food and medicinal product. The nanoemulsion is strategic for the developed of new antioxidants phytotherapeutics.
ABSTRACT Objective: To verify the association of lifestyle, anthropometric, sociodemographic, family and school environment indicators with the number of steps/day in children. Methods: The sample consisted of 334 children (171 boys) from nine to 11 years old. Participants used the Actigraph GT3X accelerometer to monitor the number of steps/day, moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary time (ST) for seven consecutive days. Height, body weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and body fat were also measured. Lifestyle indicators such as diet, environment, neighborhood, and parental schooling level were obtained with questionnaires. For the identification of variables associated to the number of steps/day, multiple linear regression models were used. Results: The mean steps/day of boys and girls were statistically different (10,471 versus 8,573; p<001). Among boys, the variables associated to the number of steps/day were: MVPA (β=0.777), ST (β=-0.131), BMI (β=-0.135), WC (β=-0.117), and BF (β=-0.127). Among girls, the variables associated to the number of steps/day were: MVPA (β=0.837), ST (β=-0.112), and parents’ educational level (β=0.129). Conclusions: Lifestyle indicators, body composition variables and parental educational level influence the number of steps/day of children, and MVPA and ST are common for both sexes.
RESUMO Objetivo: Verificar a associação dos indicadores de estilo de vida, antropométricos, sociodemográficos, ambiente familiar e escolar com a quantidade de passos/dia em crianças. Métodos: A amostra constituiu-se de 334 crianças (171 meninos) de 9 a 11 anos. Os participantes utilizaram o acelerômetro Actigraph GT3X para monitorar a quantidade de passos/dia, a atividade física moderada a vigorosa (AFMV) e o tempo sedentário (TS) durante sete dias consecutivos. Estatura, massa corporal, índice de massa corpórea (IMC), circunferência de cintura (CC) e gordura corporal também foram mensurados. Indicadores de estilo de vida, como dieta, ambiente, vizinhança e nível de escolaridade dos pais, foram obtidos por questionários. Para identificar as variáveis associadas à quantidade de passos/dia, utilizaram-se modelos de regressão linear múltipla. Resultados: As médias de passos/dia dos meninos e das meninas foram estatisticamente diferentes (10.471 versus 8.573; p<0,001). Nos meninos, as variáveis associadas à quantidade de passos/dia foram: AFMV (β=0,777), TS (β=-0,131), IMC (β=-0,135), CC (β=-0,117) e gordura corporal (β=-0,127). Já entre as meninas, as variáveis associadas à quantidade de passos/dia foram: AFMV (β=0,837), TS (β=-0,112) e nível educacional dos pais (β=0,129). Conclusões: Indicadores de estilo de vida, variáveis de composição corporal e nível educacional dos pais influenciaram a quantidade de passos/dia das crianças. A AFMV e o TS foram comuns para ambos os sexos.
ABSTRACT: Transplants for cats with naturally occurring renal disease have been introduced into clinical practice, but canine renal transplantation represents a greater challenge because of the lack of a balanced immunosuppressive protocol, difficulty in selecting compatible canine kidney donors, and absence of transplantation monitoring protocols. This and other important factors will be discussed in this review to help improve short- and long-term outcomes for renal transplantation in dogs.
RESUMO: O transplante renal em gatos com doença renal naturalmente adquirida está cada vez mais sendo introduzido na prática clínica. O transplante renal em cães, por sua vez, representa um desafio maior devido a falta da definição de um protocolo imunossupressor equilibrado, dificuldade na seleção de doadores compatíveis e ausência de protocolos de monitoramento de transplantes. Esses e outros fatores serão abordados nesta revisão afim de melhorar os resultados, tanto a curto quanto a longo prazo do transplante renal em cães.
Abstract The Program for Biodiversity Research (PPBio) is an innovative program designed to integrate all biodiversity research stakeholders. Operating since 2004, it has installed long-term ecological research sites throughout Brazil and its logic has been applied in some other southern-hemisphere countries. The program supports all aspects of research necessary to understand biodiversity and the processes that affect it. There are presently 161 sampling sites (see some of them at Supplementary Appendix), most of which use a standardized methodology that allows comparisons across biomes and through time. To date, there are about 1200 publications associated with PPBio that cover topics ranging from natural history to genetics and species distributions. Most of the field data and metadata are available through PPBio web sites or DataONE. Metadata is available for researchers that intend to explore the different faces of Brazilian biodiversity spatio-temporal variation, as well as for managers intending to improve conservation strategies. The Program also fostered, directly and indirectly, local technical capacity building, and supported the training of hundreds of undergraduate and graduate students. The main challenge is maintaining the long-term funding necessary to understand biodiversity patterns and processes under pressure from global environmental changes.
Abstract Banana vascular wilt or Moko is a disease caused by Ralstonia solanacearum. This study aimed to sequence, assemble, annotate, and compare the genomes of R. solanacearum Moko ecotypes of different sequevar strains from Brazil. Average nucleotide identity analyses demonstrated a high correlation (> 96%) between the genome sequences of strains CCRMRs277 (sequevar IIA-24), CCRMRs287 (IIB-4), CCRMRs304 (IIA-24), and CCRMRsB7 (IIB-25), which were grouped into phylotypes IIA and IIB. The number of coding sequences present in chromosomes and megaplasmids varied from 3,070 to 3,521 and 1,669 to 1,750, respectively. Pangenome analysis identified 3,378 clusters in the chromosomes, of which 2,604 were shared by all four analyzed genomes and 2,580 were single copies. In megaplasmids, 1,834 clusters were identified, of which 1,005 were shared by all four genomes and 992 were identified as single copies. Strains CCRMRsB7 and CCRMRs287 differed from the others by having unique clusters in both their chromosomes and megaplasmids, and CCRMRsB7 possessed the largest genome among all Moko ecotype strains sequenced to date. Therefore, the genomic information obtained in this study provides a theoretical basis for the identification, characterization, and phylogenetic analysis of R. solanacearum Moko ecotypes.
ABSTRACT. This study aimed to evaluate the morphogenic and structural characteristics of six Panicum maximum cultivars during the establishment period. A completely randomized block design with four replicates and six treatments (Tamani, Mombaça, Massai, Tanzania, Aruana and Zuri cultivars) was used. Morphogenic (leaf appearance rate, leaf elongation rate e stem elongation rate), structural (final leaf length, tiller population density e number of leaves per tiller) and productive (forage mass, leaf blade mass, stem mass, senescent material mass and leaf:stem ratio) characteristics were evaluated. There was no difference (p > 0.05) between the cultivars in terms of the number of live leaves per tiller (2.95 leaves/tiller). Mombaça cultivar had (p < 0.05) higher canopy height (50.64 cm) compared with other cultivars. The highest (p < 0.05) tiller population density was observed in Tamani (235.90 tillers m-2) and Massai (201.60 tillers m-2) cultivars. Leaf lifespan (54.18 days), phyllochron (17.40 days/leaf) and leaf senescence rate (0.87 cm tiller day-1) were not different (p > 0.05) between cultivars. However, leaf appearance rate was higher (p < 0.05) in Tanzania (0.07 leaves tiller day-1) than in Aruana cultivar (0.05 leaves tiller day-1). Leaf blade mass was higher (p < 0.05) in Mombaça cultivar (1518.31 kg DM ha-1), whereas Massai showed higher (p < 0.05) leaf:stem ratio (9.25). Panicum cultivars Tamani, Tanzania and Massai establishment after 75 days, while the other cultivars establish at 105 days of sowing in the Brazilian Northeast.
ABSTRACT. Agricultural production in semi-arid regions is limited due to water availability. In addition, the water quality available for irrigation is often compromised due to the high salt content present. Millet is a forage species considered tolerant to water deficit and moderately salt tolerant. In view of the above, the objective was to evaluate the growth of millet under water and saline stress associates. The experiment was carried out in a randomized block design, in a 4x3 factorial scheme, composed of four levels of water replacement, based on crop evapotranspiration (ETc): 25%.ETc, 50%.ETc, 75%.ETc and 100%.ETc and three levels of water salinity (0.03, 2.0 and 4.0 dS m-1). With 25%.ETc independent of salinity, all morphological characteristics of millet were affected, occurring death of plants in the initial growth phase. In the absence of salt and greater availability of water, greater plant growth occurred. With respect to salinity, there was a reduction in the increment of all variables evaluated, with the highest reduction at the highest saline level (4.0 dS m-1). Water and salt stresses, when associated, reduce the growth of millet, since concentrations above 2.0 dS m-1 and less than 50%.ETc compromise its full development, providing declines in yield.
ABSTRACT: One of the biggest challenges in intercropping of two or more crops is to maintain their productivity as that of their sole counterparts. In order to obtain sustainable intercropping systems in a semi-arid environment, this study evaluated the agro-economic advantage and sustainability of intercropped systems of carrot and cowpea, optimizing the green manuring and spatial arrangements. Experiments were conducted in the period from July to October 2017 and 2018, using a randomized complete block design with the treatments arranged in a 4 x 3 factorial scheme, with four replications. Treatments included four amounts of M. aegyptia incorporated into the soil (20, 35, 50, and 65 t ha-1 on dry basis) with three spatial arrangements (2:2, 3:3, and 4:4) between the components cultures formed from cowpea rows alternated with carrot rows. The agro-economic advantage indices evaluated in the intercropping systems were: land equivalent ratio (LER), area-time equivalent ratio (ATER), score of the canonical variable (Z), actual yield loss (AYL), intercropping advantage (IA), gross income (GI), net income (NI), rate of return (RR), and profit margin (PM). The highest agro-economic advantages of the carrot and cowpea intercropping were obtained for LER, ATER, NI, and RR of 2.60, 4.16, US$ 8,720.99 ha-1, and US$ 2.21, respectively, for M. aegyptia biomass amounts of 46.42, 47.82, 32.60 and 31.51t ha-1 added to the soil. The 2: 2 spatial arrangement was the one with the best productive performance, with higher net income and rate of return in the intercropping of carrot-cowpea.
RESUMO: Um dos maiores desafios no consórcio de duas ou mais culturas é manter sua produtividade como a de suas únicas contrapartes. Com o objetivo de obter sistemas de consórcio sustentáveis em ambiente semiárido, este estudo avaliou vantagem agroeconômica e a sustentabilidade de sistemas consorciados de cenoura e feijão-caupi, otimizando a adubação verde e os arranjos espaciais. Experimentos foram conduzidos no período de julho a outubro de 2017 e 2018, em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com os tratamentos dispostos em esquema fatorial 4 x 3, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos incluíram quatro quantidades de M. aegyptia incorporadas ao solo (20, 35, 50 e 65 t ha-1 em base seca) com três arranjos espaciais (2: 2, 3: 3 e 4: 4) entre as culturas componentes formadas a partir de fileiras de feijão-caupi alternadas com fileiras de cenoura. Os índices de vantagem agroeconômica avaliados nos sistemas de consorciação foram: índice de uso eficiente da terra (UET), razão de área equivalente no tempo (RAET), escore da variável canônica (Z), perda de rendimento real (PRR), vantagem do consórcio (VC), renda bruta (RB), renda líquida (RL), taxa de retorno (TR) e margem de lucro (ML). As maiores vantagens agroeconômicas do consórcio de cenoura e feijão-caupi foram obtidas para UET, RAET, RL e TR de 2,60, 4,16, US$ 8.720,99 ha-1 e US$ 2,21, respectivamente, para as quantidades de biomassa de M. aegyptia de 46,42, 47,82, 32,60 e 31,51 t ha-1, adicionadas ao solo. O arranjo espacial 2: 2 foi o de melhor desempenho produtivo, com maior receita líquida e taxa de retorno no consórcio entre feijão-caupi e cenoura.
ABSTRACT The importance of monitoring the pressures in the water supply system combined with the high cost of implementation and maintenance of devices capable of this, corroborated the objective of this study. Therefore, we seek to develop low-cost equipment to measure water pressure. For this, 15 MPR dataloggers were produced, costing R$ 208.15 each, calibrated with a commercial equipment. The equipment were installed in residences with different consumptions profiles and altitudes in the municipality of Lucas do Rio Verde, Mato Grosso, for 43 days. The results obtained were satisfied, promising, and showed that the equipment is robust and precise with a R² of 0.9986 when compared with the commercial equipment, in addition to being possible to evaluate the city’s supply system and the necessary interventions.
RESUMO A importância de se monitorar as pressões no sistema de abastecimento de água aliada ao alto custo de implementação e manutenção de dispositivos capazes disso corroboraram ao objetivo deste estudo. Sendo assim, buscou-se desenvolver um equipamento de baixo custo para monitorar a pressão da água. Para isso, produziu-se 15 MPR dataloggers, custando R$ 208,15 cada, que foram aferidos com um equipamento comercial. Os equipamentos foram instalados em residências de distintos perfis de consumo e altitudes do município de Lucas do Rio Verde, no estado de Mato Grosso, por 43 dias. De modo geral, os resultados obtidos foram satisfatórios, promissores e demonstraram o equipamento robusto e preciso, com R2 de 0,9986 quando comparado com o equipamento comercial, além de ter sido possível avaliar o sistema de abastecimento da cidade e as intervenções necessárias.
ABSTRACT Background: Neurological manifestations of COVID-19 are still incompletely understood. Neurological manifestations may be due to direct viral effect on neurons and glial cells, to an immune-mediated response to the virus, or to a hypercoagulable state and associated endothelial damage, as well as to severe systemic disease with prolonged intensive care unit stay. Objective: To describe two patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection and delayed recovery of consciousness after sedation withdrawal, in whom MRI disclosed multifocal white matter brain lesions, compatible with the diagnosis of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Methods: Observational report of two cases of severe COVID-19 infection in patients from two tertiary hospitals in São Paulo, Brazil. Results: These patients underwent neurologic and systemic evaluation for delayed awakening after sedation withdrawal. MRI displayed multifocal centrum semiovale lesions, suggestive of demyelinating inflammation. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for SARS-CoV-2 was negative in both cases. Conclusion: A recurrent pattern of multifocal white matter lesions can occur in COVID-19 patients, possibly associated with delayed awakening. Additional studies are necessary to elucidate the role of the viral infection and of inflammatory and immune-mediated associated changes in neurological manifestations of COVID-19.
RESUMO Introdução: As manifestações neurológicas causadas pela COVID-19 ainda não estão completamente elucidadas. O comprometimento neurológico pode decorrer de um efeito viral direto em neurônios ou em células gliais, a efeito imunomediado em resposta à infecção viral, ou de um efeito secundário a estados de hipercoagulabilidade e danos endoteliais, assim como decorrente de complicações sistêmicas graves relacionadas a cuidados intensivos prolongados na unidade de terapia intensiva. Objetivo: Descrever dois pacientes com recuperação tardia do nível de consciência após a retirada da sedação associados à infecção grave pelo SARS-CoV-2, que apresentaram lesões multifocais de substância branca, compatíveis com o diagnóstico de encefalomielite disseminada aguda. Métodos: Estudo observacional, com relato de dois casos de infecção grave pela COVID-19, em dois hospitais terciários na cidade de São Paulo, Brasil. Resultados: Os pacientes foram submetidos à investigação sistêmica e neurológica para avaliação de estado alterado de consciência após retirada de sedação. A ressonância magnética de crânio evidenciou lesões multifocais no centro semioval, sugestivos de processo inflamatório desmielinizante. Análise liquórica evidenciou PCR negativo para SARS-CoV-2 em ambos os casos. Conclusão: Lesões multifocais de substância branca podem ocorrer em pacientes com COVID-19, possivelmente associadas a estados alterados de consciência. Estudos adicionais são necessários para determinar o processo fisiopatológico da infecção viral e dos estados inflamatórios e imunomediados na gênese das manifestações neurológicas causadas pela COVID-19.