Abstract Purpose The objective of this study was to investigate the accuracy of 18F-FDG-PET in the diagnosis of multibacterial abdominal sepsis by cecum ligation and puncture (CLP) in rats. Methods Adult Wistar rats ( Rattus norvegicus ), weighing 227±35g, were allocated into a sepsis group by CLP (n=10) and sham group (n=10). 18F-FDG-PET using microPET was performed on all rats after 24 hours. Results All animals survived for postoperative 24h. The abdomen/liver ratio of the standardized uptake value (SUV) percentage was significantly higher in the sepsis group than in the sham (p=0.004). The ROC curve showed an accuracy of 18F-FDG-PET to detect abdominal sepsis of 88.9% (p=0.001), sensitivity of 90% and specificity of 88.9%. When a cut-off point of 79% of the ratio between the SUV on the abdominal region and liver was established, the sensitivity was 90%, specificity of 88.9%; positive and negative predictive values of 90.0% and 88.9%, respectively. Conclusions The diagnostic accuracy of 18F-FDG-PET in rats with abdominal sepsis was significantly high. It was also demonstrated the predictive ability of the abdomen/liver SUV ratio to diagnose abdominal sepsis. These findings may have implications for the clinical setting, locating septic foci with PETscan.
ABSTRACT Skins infections caused by Mycobacterium marinum occur only rarely. We report one case of chronic and extensive M. marinum cutaneous infection simulating chromoblastomycosis and review the pertinent literature. A 52-year-old farmer reported a 32-year chronic skin problem on his right lower limb, resulting from contact with cacti. It consisted of skin lesion presenting with dyschromic atrophic center plate and verrucous borders with hematic crusts, extending from the knee anteriorly to the inferior third of the right leg. Mycobacterium marinum infection was detected by histopathological examination of a skin fragment, culture for mycobacteria and genetic mapping of the culture material. The patient was successfully treated with Ethambutol, Rifampicin and Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole. The clinical and histopathological findings of M. marinum infection is nonspecific showing clinical polymorphism and bacilli are rarely evident on histopathological examination. Given these difficulties, it is essential to perform tissue culture in a suspicious case and it is important keep this infection in mind in patients with long-lasting indolent verrucous lesions and a history of exposure to sea water, freshwater, aquaria or fish.
Abstract Purpose: To examine the effects of Arrabidaa chica (Bignoniacea) extract, a native plant of the Amazon known as crajiru, on a 7,12-dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene (DMBA)-induced breast cancer model in Wistar rats. Methods: We compared the response of breast cancer to the oral administration of A. chica extract (ACE) for 16 weeks, associated or not with vincristine. Groups: normal control; DMBA (50mg/kg v.o,) without treatment; DMBA+ACE (300 mg/kg); DMBA+vincristine. 500μg/kg injected i.p; DMBA+ACE+Vincristine 250μg/kg i.p. Imaging by microPET and fluorescence, biochemistry, oxidative stress, hematology and histopathology were used to validate the treatments. Results: All animals survived. A gradual weight gain in all groups was observed, with no significant difference (p>0.05). The oral administration of ACE and ACE+vincristine 50% significantly reduced breast tumors incidence examined with PET-18FDG and fluorescence (p<0.001). Significant reduction of serum transaminases, oxidative stress and hematological toxicity were observed in these groups. Antioxidant enzyme levels in breast tissue were significantly higher compared to the DMBA and DMBA+vincristine groups. Conclusion: These results demonstrate for the first time that ACE positively influences the treatment of DMBA-induced breast cancer in animal model, inducing a reduction in oxidative stress and chemotherapy toxicity, meaning that ACE may have clinical implication in further studies.
Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the effect of oxacillin bonded to magnetic nanoparticles in local infection model in rat. Methods: Twelve Wistar rats weighing 290±18g were randomly divided into four groups (n=6, each) and all rats had a magnet ring sutured on their right thighs. In the biodistribution group rats 0.1mL of 99mTc-magnetite (0.66 MBq) was injected i.v and after 30 minutes, biodistribution of 99mTc-magnetite was evaluated in right and left thighs. The other groups were inoculated with MRSA in each thigh muscles. Group 1 rats were injected i.v. with magnetite, group 2 with Magnetite + Oxacillin, group 3 with saline twice a day. After 24 hours samples of muscle secretion were harvested for microbiological analysis; muscle, lungs and kidneys for histology. Results: 99mTc-magnetite uptake was three-fold higher in right thigh muscles (with external magnet) than in the left. In magnetite and oxacillin-magnetite groups, bacterial/CFU was significantly lower in thigh muscles than in saline-controls. The inflammatory reaction in muscles and lungs was significantly lower in oxacillin-magnetite group-rats than in other groups (p<0.001) . Conclusion: This study confirms the potential antimicrobial activity of magnetic nanoparticles for Methicillin-Resistant S. aureus strains, which in addition to concentrate the antibiotic at the infection site, positively influenced the treatment.
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE:Impaired local cell immunity seems to contribute towards the pathogenesis and progression of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), but the underlying molecular mechanisms promoting its progression remain unclear. Identification of new molecular markers for prognosis and diagnosis of early-stage CIN may aid in decreasing the numbers of CIN cases. Several novel immunoregulatory molecules have been discovered over the past few years, including the human leukocyte antigen G (HLA-G), which through interaction with its receptors exerts important tolerogenic functions. Several lines of evidence suggest that T-helper interleukin-17 (IL-17)-producing cells (Th17 cells) may play a role in antitumor immunity. However, recent reports have implicated Th17 cells and their cytokines in both pro and anti-tumorigenic processes. The aim of the study was to evaluate the roles of HLA-G and Th17 in the immunopathogenesis of CIN I.DESIGN AND SETTING:Analytical cross-sectional study with a control group using 58 cervical specimens from the files of a public university hospital providing tertiary-level care.METHODS:We examined HLA-G and IL-17 expression in the cervical microenvironment by means of immunohistochemistry, and correlated these findings with clinical and pathological features.RESULTS:There was a greater tendency towards HLA-G and IL-17 expression in specimens that showed CIN I, thus suggesting that these molecules have a contribution towards cervical progression.CONCLUSION:These findings suggest that HLA-G and IL-17 expression may be an early marker for assessing the progression of cervical lesions.
CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO:A deficiência na imunidade celular localizada parece contribuir para a patogênese e progressão das neoplasias intraepiteliais cervicais (NIC), no entanto, ainda não está totalmente esclarecido o mecanismo molecular fundamental nesse processo de progressão. A identificação de novos marcadores moleculares de prognóstico e diagnóstico das NIC em estágios precoces pode ajudar a diminuir a quantidade de casos de NIC. Várias novas moléculas com função imunorregulatória foram descobertas nos últimos anos, inclusive o antígeno leucocitário humano G (HLA-G), que, através de interação com os receptores, tem importantes funções tolerogênicas. Diversas linhas de evidência sugerem que as células T-ajudantes produtoras de interleucina-17 (IL-17, células Th17), podem desempenhar um papel na imunidade antitumoral. Porém, recentes relatos implicaram as células Th17 e suas citocinas tanto em processos pro- quanto anti-tumorigênicos. O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar o papel do HLA-G e Th17 na imunopatogênese das NIC I.TIPO DE ESTUDO E LOCAL:Estudo transversal analítico com grupo controle em 58 espécimes cervicais dos arquivos de um hospital universitário público com assistência prestada no nível terciário.MÉTODOS:Avaliamos a expressão de HLA-G e IL-17 por imunoistoquímica no microambiente cervical, associando esses achados com as características clínico-patológicas.RESULTADOS:Houve tendência aumentada da expressão de HLA-G e IL-17 em espécimes que apresentaram NIC I, sugerindo que essas moléculas têm contribuição na progressão cervical.CONCLUSÃO:Estes resultados sugerem que a expressão do HLA-G e da IL-17 pode ser um marcador precoce para avaliar a progressão das lesões cervicais.
PURPOSE: To test the hypothesis that liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy can be influenced by the ileum.METHODS:Eighteen Wistar rats were distributed into groups of six animals: 1 - ileum resection+ hepatectomy 2/3; 2 - hepatectomy 2/3, and 3 - sham. Anesthesia with ketamine and xylazine i.p., aseptic technique, analgesia with meperidine (10mg/kg s.c.). On day 6, serum ALT, AST, alkaline phosphatase (AP) and albumin were measured. Liver regeneration and hepatocyte mitosis were quantified. Statistical analysis with ANOVA and Tukey tests, with significance p<0.05.RESULTS:In group hepatectomy+ileal resection, ALT, AST and AP were 180.6±24.9, 58.6±3.1 and 254.6±46.6 respectively. They were significantly higher than in the hepatectomy group, whose values were 126.0±16.5, 44.1±3.9 and 163.5±8.6, respectively (p<0.001). Albumin levels were not significantly different among groups. Liver regeneration in hepatectomy group (94.17%) was statistically higher (p<0.001) than in ileal resection+hepatectomy group (55.96%). In the latter group the mitosis of hepatocytes were significantly less frequent than in the hepatectomy group.CONCLUSION: The data confirm that the ileum positively influence on liver regeneration in rats undergoing hepatectomy.
PURPOSE: To evaluate if the ileum resection changes the functioning liver cell mass, the hepatic metabolism and the biodistribution of radiopharmaceutical in rats. METHODS: Twelve Wistar rats weighing 285g±34g were randomly divided into the ileum resection group (n = 6) and sham group rats (n = 6). After 30 days, they were anesthetized and 0.1mL of 99m-Tc-phytate (0.66MBq) was injected via femoral vein. After 30 minutes, blood samples were collected for red blood cells radioactive labeling and serum ALT, AST and gammaGT. Liver samples were used for 99m-Tc-phytate percentage of radioactivity/gram of tissue and histopathology. Student 's t test was used with significance 0.05. RESULTS: There was a higher uptake of 99m-Tc-phytate in the liver of sham rats, compared to the ileum resection group (p<0.05). GammaGT, ALT and AST were increased in ileum resection rats compared to sham (p<0.05). The he patocytes count was significantly lower in ileum resection group than in sham (p<0.05). Liver: body mass ratio was lower in experimental animals than in sham group (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: These data support that the ileum has important role in liver function and liver mass regulation, and they have potential clinical implications regarding the pathogenesis of liver injury following lower bowel resection.
OBJECTIVE: As little is known about the use of basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (FCFb) in the healing of abdominal aponeurosis, an experimental work was done to study it. METHODS: Twenty Wistar rats randomly separated in two groups were used. They were anesthetised with pentobarbital 20 mg/Kg intraperitonealy, submited to a 4cm median laparotomy and the aponeurosis was sutured with nylon 5-0. In group I 5mg of FCFb was applied over the sutured aponeurosis end the group II received saline 0,9% over it. After seven days the rats were killed by an overdose of anesthetic. A transversal 1,5 cm wideness sample of aponeurosis was submited to tensil strenght test, using the assay device EMIC MF500. Biopsies from the sutured tissue were processed and colored by HE and Masson trichromic. The histopatologic data were quantitated and transformed into mean density by the digital equipment Image Pro-plus. The Student t test was used and the differences were significant when p<0,05. RESULTS: In group I the the mean tensil strength was 1.103± 103,39gf and the mean density of histopatologic data was 226± 29,32. In group II (control) the tensil strenght was 791,1± 92, 77gf and the histolopatogical density was 114,1± 17,01. The differences were statisticaly significant (p<0,01). CONCLUSION: In conclusion, our data show that FCFb induces an increase of tensil strenght of sutured aponeurosis of rats and turns better the histopatological parameters of wound healing.
OBJETIVO: Trabalho realizado em ratos com o objetivo de estudar o efeito do Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos básico (FCFb) na cicatrização da aponeurose abdominal. MÉTODOS: Foram usados 20 ratos Wistar separados aleatoriamente em 2 grupos iguais. Os animais foram anestesiados com pentobarbital sódico na dose de 20 mg/Kg por via intraperitoneal e submetidos a laparotomia mediana de 4 cm, cuja camada aponeurótica foi suturada com mononylon 5-0. No grupo I foi aplicada a dose de 5mg de FCFb sobre a sutura da aponeurose. No grupo II (controle) foi aplicada solução salina 0,9% sobre a linha se sutura. Após observação por 7 dias os animais foram mortos com superdose de anestésico. A camada aponeurótica com 1,5 cm de largura foi submetida a teste de resistência à tensão empregando a Máquina de Ensaios EMIC MF500. Biópsias das zonas de sutura foram processadas e coradas com HE e o tricômico de Masson. Os achados histopatológicos foram quantificados através de sistema digital (Image pro-plus) de captura e processamento de imagens. Os dados obtidos foram analisados pelo teste T com significância 0,05. RESULTADOS: Nos animais do grupo I (experimental) a zona de sutura da camada aponeurótica suportou a carga de 1.103± 103,39gf. A quantificação dos dados histopatológicos desse grupo atingiu a densidade média 226± 29,32. No grupo II (controle) a carga suportada pela zona de sutura foi de 791,1± 92,77 gf. Quando foram comparadas as médias das resistências à tensão dos dois grupos, observou-se uma diferença significante (p<0,01). O exame histopatológico das lâminas desse grupo relevou densidade média 114,1± 17,01, correspondendo a uma diferença significante quando comparadas as médias dos dois grupos (p<0,01). CONCLUSÃO: Os dados permitem concluir que o FCFb contribuiu para aumentar a resistência da aponeurose suturada e para melhorar os parâmetros histopatológicos da cicatrização.
OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to determine and quantify the influence of nicotine, applied subcutaneously, in the lungs of rats. METHODS: Twenty Wistar rats weighing 235±35g were randomly separated in two groups. The group I (n=10) received nicotine ( 2 mg/Kg body mass/day) during 20 days and the group II (n=10) received placebo subcutaneously. RESULTS: The results illustrate that in the group I resulted bronchopneumonia in 3 (30%) rats, alveolar leucocitosis in 10 (100%), septal leucocitosis in 7 (70%) and atelectasia was found in 2 (20%). Transformed in scores, the data totalized 52 points. The scores of the lesions observed in the lungs of group II rats reached 11 points (p <0,05). CONCLUSION: These findings indicate and conclude that the use of nicotine subcutaneously can be implicated in significant lung lesions in rats, when compared with controls.
OBJETIVO: Estudo com o objetivo de observar a influência da nicotina, aplicada pela via subcutânea, em pulmões de ratos. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 20 ratos Wistar pesando 235± 35g, separados aleatoriamente em 2 grupos iguais. O grupo I (n=10) recebeu nicotina na dose de 2 mg/Kg/dia pela via subcutânea durante 20 dias e o grupo II (n=10) recebeu placebo pela mesma via de administração. RESULTADOS: Os resultados mostraram que no grupo I ocorreu broncopneumonia em 3 (30%) ratos, leucocitose alveolar em 10 (100%) e leucocitose septal em 7 (70%). Atelectasia foi encontrada em 2 (20%). Transformados em escores, os dados totalizaram 52 pontos. Os escores das alterações observadas nos pulmões do grupo II atingiram 11 pontos (p<0,05). CONCLUSÃO: Os dados permitiram concluir que o uso da nicotina por via subcutânea contribuiu para o aparecimento de lesões pulmonares em ratos, em número e intensidade significativamente maiores do que nos animais considerados controles.
The duration of the operations can represent an important factor for a series of postoperative complications, especially in the aged. OBJECTIVE: study the repercussion in the lungs, of operations of different duration. METHODS: Twenty aged rats (18 months old) and 20 young (3 months old) were randomly separated in groups A and B respectively. The groups were divided in A1, A2, A3, A4, B1, B2, B3 and B4, with five rats each. The animals were anesthetized with pentobarbital (20mg/Kg) intraperitoneal. In the group A1 and B1 a 30 minutes operation was done, in the groups A2 and B2 60 minutes, in the A3 and B3 the operation was done in 120 minutes and in the A4 and B4 control groups the animals were not operated. The procedure consisted of laparotomy that was opened and closed so many times as necessary to reach the operative times. After the 5th postoperative day the animals were killed with anesthetic's overdosis and biopsies of both lungs were performed. The biopsies were processed and colored by HE. The histologic findings were transformed in scores for each group. RESULTS: the following results were seen: The groups of the young rats had the scores: A1= score 6, A2=11; A3=28; A4=5. Old rats had the following scores: B1=12; B2=34; B3=51 e B4=6. The statistical analysis revealed significant difference among the scores of the groups A and B. CONCLUSION: the prolonged time of surgery in rats contributes to significant histopatologic alterations in the lungs. As larger the operative time, larger and more frequent the pulmonary complications.
A duração das operações pode representar um fator importante para uma série de complicações pós-operatórias, especialmente para os indivíduos idosos. OBJETIVO: estudar a repercussão nos pulmões, de operações de diferentes tempos de duração. MÉTODOS: Vinte ratos idosos (18 meses) e 20 jovens (3 meses) foram separados aleatoriamente em grupos A e B respectivamente. Os grupos foram divididos em A1, A2, A3, A4, B1, B2, B3 and B4, com cinco ratos cada. Os animais foram anestesiados com pentobarbital (20mg/Kg) intraperitoneal. No subgrupo A1 e B1 foi feita operação com duração de 30 minutos, nos grupos A2 and B2 60 minutos, em A3 and B3 a operação foi feita em 120 minuto e os animais A4 e B4 (controle) não foram operados. O procedimento consistiu de laparotomia xifopubiana que foi aberta e fechada tantas vezes quanto necessário para atingir os tempos estipulados. Após o quinto dia pós-operatório os animais foram mortos com superdose de anestésico e biópsias de ambos os pulmões foram realizadas. Os achados histopatológicos foram transformados em escores. RESULTADOS: os grupos de ratos jovens atingiram os escores: A1= escore 6, A2=11; A3=28; A4=5. Os ratos idosos tiveram os escores: B1=12; B2=34; B3=51 e B4=6. A análise estatística revelou diferenças significantes entre os escores dos grupos A e B. CONCLUSÕES: O tempo prolongado nas operações realizadas em ratos idosos contribuiu para o aparecimento de alterações pulmonares de modo significante. Quanto maior o tempo operatório, mais intensas e mais freqüentes as complicações pulmonares.
This study was designed to evaluate the bacterial translocation (TB) from the gastrointestinal tract to visceral organs in rats submitted to laparotomy and common bile duct ligation (CBDL). Four groups of rats were studied: group I (n=10) CBDL; group II (n=10) control or "sham operation"; group III (n=12) CBDL and 99mTc-E.coli and group IV (n=5) control or "sham operation" e 99mTc-E.coli. All the animals were operated with aseptic technic under intraperitoneal anesthesia with pentobarbital sodium (20mg/kg). On 7th postoperative day the animals of groups I and II were killed with a letal dosis of anesthetic and the liver, spleen, mesenteric lynphnodes and lungs were ressecated to microbiological (Agar-blood and Agar-Mac Conkey) and histological examination (H.E. and Masson Trichromic) through morphometric analysis. On 7th postoperative day the animals of III and IV groups were labeled with 99mTc-E.coli gavage and after 24hr they were killed and their organs were ressected. After that, the bacterial radioactivity was measured through an Automatic count of Gama Radioative - model ANSR (Abott Laboratories). The mean bilirrubin levels of the jaundiced rats were significantly higher as compared with the control group. The incidence of bacterial translocation was higher in group I compared with control group (p< 0.05). The results showed no significant statistic differences of 99mTc-E.coli distribution between the two groups (p<0.05). However the interactive analyses groups x organs showed significant differences among the jaundiced and control groups to the liver and lungs. The data allow to conclude that in jaundiced rat with ligated bile duct occurred bacterial translocation detectable through microbiological analyses. The model proposed showed no bacterial translocation by the labeled 99mTc technic.
Estudo realizado com o objetivo de avaliar a translocação bacteriana (TB) do tubo gastrointestinal para órgãos viscerais na icterícia obstrutiva. Quatro grupos de ratos foram estudados: grupo I (n=10) ligadura do colédoco, grupo II (n=10) controle ou "sham operation", grupo III (n=12) ligadura do colédoco e gavagem com 99mTc-Escherichia coli e grupo IV (n=5) controle ou "sham operation" e gavagem com 99mTc-E.coli. Usando técnica asséptica e sob anestesia com pentobarbital sódico (20mg/kg), os animais foram submetidos à laparotomia e nos ratos dos grupos I e III foi realizada ligadura do colédoco com fio de seda nº 000. Nos ratos dos grupos II e IV foi feita apenas a manipulação do colédoco com pinça de Adison. Após sete dias, os animais dos grupos I e II foram mortos e ressecados fígado, baço, linfonodos mesentéricos e pulmões para exame microbiológico (meios Agar-sangue e Agar Mac Conkey) e exame histopatológico (coloração H.E. e Tricrômico de Masson) por análise morfométrica. Nos animais dos grupos III e IV, após sete dias, foi administrada por via oral (gavagem) 99mTc-E.coli e após 24h, os ratos de ambos os grupos foram mortos e seus órgãos retirados para contagem da radioatividade em cintilador automático Gama, modelo ANSR (ABBOT). O nível médio de bilirrubina, nos grupos ictéricos, foi significantemente maior do que o do grupo controle. O estudo microbiológico revelou maior incidência de bactérias translocadas no grupo I, comparada ao controle (p< 0,05). Os resultados não mostraram diferença significante na captação da 99mTc-E.coli entre os dois grupos. Porém, a análise das interações grupo x órgão mostrou diferença entre os grupos ictérico e controle para os órgãos: fígado e pulmão. Os dados permitem concluir que em ratos ictéricos por ligadura do colédoco ocorreu TB detectável por exame microbiológico. Não ocorreu TB com 99mTc-E. coli no modelo proposto.