Background: The knowledge about prevalence of psychiatric disorders in all age groups is fundamental to plan an adequate mental health care. Aim: To determine the prevalence of DSM-IV psychiatric disorders in a representative sample of children and adolescents living in the province of Cautin, Chile. Material and Methods: Subjects aged between 4 and 18 years were selected in an aleatory stratified multistage fashion. As part of a national sample, four counties in Cautín were selected, then blocks, homes and the child or adolescent to be interviewed. Psychology graduate students applied the Spanish computer version of DISC-IV, as well as a questionnaire on family risk factors, socioeconomic index and service use. Results: A sample of 272 children and adolescents was evaluated, obtaining 93,4% of participation. Using the most stringent impairment algorithm, the prevalence rate for any psychiatric disorder was 16.8%, being 16.5% in boys and 17.1% in girls and mainly explained by anxiety and affective disorders. Prevalence was practically the same in the group aged 4 to 11 years than in those aged 12 to 18 years (16.7% and 16.8% respectively). Prevalence of anxiety disorders was the highest, but less associated with impairment. On the other hand, all children and adolescents with affective disorders were impaired. Conclusions: The prevalence of psychiatric disorders in Cautín is high in children and adolescents.
In the last decade, our understanding of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has progressed from studies of war veterans and specific disaster victims to studies that examine the epidemiology of PTSD in the United States (USA) population. Epidemiologic data on PTSD in developing countries is an understudied area with the majority of studies were developed in the USA and other developed countries. Of the few epidemiological surveys undertaken in other countries, most of them have focused its interest on the prevalence rates of PTSD and its risk factors for following specific traumatic events. Besides increasing the international normative and descriptive data base on PTSD, an examination of prevalence rates and risk factors for PTSD in a socio-political and cultural context (that is markedly different to established market economies) can deepen our understanding of the phenomenology and determinants of PTSD. Although many psychiatric diagnoses can be related with previous traumatic experiences, PTSD has been identified as a disorder that requires a previous traumatic exposure for its diagnosis. A growing literature strongly suggests that early exposure to traumatic events disrupts crucial normal stages of childhood development and predisposes children to subsequent psychiatric sequelae. A series of epidemiological studies has demonstrated that childhood sexual abuse is associated with a range of psychiatric disorders in adulthood that includes mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders, even after adjusting for possible confounds, such as family factors and parental psychopathological disorders or other childhood adversities. There is little evidence of diagnostic specificity of childhood sexual abuse, although a consistent finding has been that alcohol and drug disorders are more strongly related to childhood sexual abuse than other psychiatric disorders. Other forms of childhood traumas have been less well studied. This article reviews the findings of an epidemiological study that took place in Chile and examined prevalence rates of PTSD, traumatic events most often associated with PTSD, comorbidity of PTSD with other lifetime psychiatric disorders, gender differences in PTSD as well as trauma exposure in a representative sample of Chileans. This article also reported a comparison of prevalence rates of various psychiatric disorders among persons who reported the first trauma during their childhood, those who reported the first trauma during their adulthood, and those with no trauma history. The study was based on a household-stratified sample of people defined by the health service system to be adults (aged 15 years and older). The study was designed to represent the population of Chile. This analysis is limited to three geographically distinct provinces, chosen as being representative of the distribution of much of the population. The interviews were administered to a representative sample of 2390 persons aged 15 to over 64 years. The measures used were the DSM-III-R PTSD and antisocial personality disorder modules from the Diagnostic Interview Schedule and modules for a range of DSM-III-R diagnoses from the Composite International Diagnostic. Traumatic events were categorized into one of 11 categories: military combat, rape, physical assault, seeing someone hurt or killed, disaster, threat, narrow escape, sudden injury/ accident, news of a sudden death or accident, other event (e.g. kidnapping, torture), or other experience. The translation into Spanish was conducted using the protocol outlined by the World Health Organization. The interviewers were all university students in their senior year studying social sciences. Taylor series linearization method was used to estimate the standard errors due to the sample design and the need for weighting. The analysis was conducted using procedures without replacement for non-respondents. The region, province, comuna, and district selected were used as the defined strata. Logistic regression with the corresponding 95% confidence interval was used to examine associations among PTSD, demographic risk factors, and trauma type. To examine whether the association between PTSD and gender could be explained by other risk factors, multivariate logistic regression analyses were also conducted. The first analysis found that the lifetime prevalence of PTSD was 4.4% (2.5% for men and 6.2% for women). Among the traumatic events, rape was most strongly associated with PTSD diagnosis. Among those exposed to traumas, women were significantly more likely to develop PTSD than men, after controlling for assaultive violence. The second analysis revealed that exposure to a lifetime trauma was associated with a higher probability of psychiatric morbidity in comparison with no trauma exposure. Traumas with childhood onset were significantly related to lifetime panic disorder, independent of number of lifetime traumas and demographic differences. This revealed that women had more probabilities than men of developing PTSD once they are exposed to trauma, independent of previous traumas, experiences of sexual assault, other violent experiences or level of education. Some authors have proposed that women have a higher vulnerability than men to develop PTSD and that there are sex differences in brain morphology, in the social interpretation of trauma, or/and in the peritraumatic dissociative experience. Although many theories have been proposed to explain this gender difference in PTSD, more research is needed to evaluate them empirically. This study highlights the importance of investigating the prevalence of PTSD, the patterns of comorbidity of PTSD, as well as gender differences of PTSD in non-English speaking countries. Although Chile has a different historical and socio-cultural context with respect to other countries in which the epidemiology of PTSD has been examined, in general, this study achieved similar results as those found in other studies. The results showed that PTSD is not an uncommon psychiatric illness, it is associated with a high degree of psychiatric comorbidity, it is more likely to predate other psychiatric disorders. Also, the results showed that men are more likely to be exposed to traumas than women, women are more likely than men to develop PTSD, and that PTSD is associated with relatively high treatment utilization. However, compared to another country in Latin America, such as Mexico, Chile has a lower prevalence of PTSD and trauma exposure, which may due to socio-economic factors, such as less inequity between the wealthy and the poor and less violence, crime, and poverty in Chile than Mexico. These studies also suggest that traumatic events that occur in childhood are related to specific disorders rather than those that occurred later in life. Individuals with childhood interpersonal trauma exposure are more likely to suffer from lifetime panic disorder, agoraphobia or PTSD compared to those who experience interpersonal trauma as an adult. However, research should examine the specificity of these disorders in relation to various types of childhood traumas. Limitations of the current study include the use of lay interviewers who, despite acceptable levels of reliability and validity, may be less accurate than clinicians as interviewers. Also the retrospective recall of lifetime disorders is likely to be less accurate than a more recent time frame. The sample used in this study does not show nation wide perspective, because the Southern portion of the country which includes much of the indigenous population was excluded. This study, like most epidemiological studies, did not use an-depth or validated index of trauma, which may have diluted findings. Since this study was cross-sectional, a direct cause-effect relationship cannot be assumed between trauma exposure and subsequent disorders.
Durante la década de 1990 en los Estados Unidos (EU), el conocimiento sobre el trastorno de estrés post-traumático (TEPT) evolucionó de estudios específicos en un principio, sobre veteranos de guerra y sobre víctimas de desastres, a estudios epidemiológicos más tarde, sin embargo, la epidemiología del TEPT en países en desarrollo ha sido un área poco estudiada hasta ahora. Los expertos en el área de trauma han propuesto que los sucesos traumáticos que ocurren en la niñez son más perjudiciales para la salud mental que aquellos que ocurren más tarde en la vida. Este trabajo revisa los resultados de un estudio epidemiológico llevado a cabo en Chile. Específicamente, se revisan los resultados sobre las tasas de prevalencia del TEPT, traumas asociados más frecuentemente con él, así como la comorbilidad de este trastorno con otros trastornos psiquiátricos a lo largo de la vida. Igualmente se analizaron las diferencias del TEPT en cada sexo, así como la exposición a traumas en una muestra representativa de chilenos. Además se comparó la prevalencia de trastornos psiquiátricos en personas que sufrieron su primer trauma durante la niñez, durante la edad adulta, o que no reportaron traumas durante su vida. En estos estudios epidemiológicos se usaron módulos del TEPT y trastorno de personalidad antisocial (TPA) de la entrevista diagnóstica siguiendo los criterios del DSM-III-R (DIS-III-R). Para evaluar el resto de los trastornos psiquiátricos se usó la Entrevista Diagnóstica Internacional Compuesta (CIDI). Estos instrumentos fueron administrados en tres ciudades chilenas a 2390 personas mayores de 15 años. Para estimar los errores estándares (EE) debido al diseño de la muestra y a la necesidad de ajuste se usó el método Taylor de linearización seriada. También se usó un análisis de regresión logística para examinar la relación entre el TEPT, los factores demográficos de riesgo y el tipo de trauma. Además se utilizó la regresión logística multivariada para evaluar si la relación entre el TEPT y el sexo pudiera ser explicada por medio de otros factores de riesgo, así como para calcular las tasas y la oportunidad relativa (razón de productos cruzados) de trastornos psiquiátricos a lo largo de la vida. El primer análisis arrojó que la prevalencia de TEPT a lo largo de la vida fue de 4.4% (2.5% para hombres y 6.2% para mujeres). De los hechos traumáticos reportados, la violación sexual tuvo una correlación más alta con el TEPT que los demás hechos traumáticos. Las mujeres tuvieron más probabilidades de experimentar TEPT que los hombres, después de controlar la variable asalto violento. El segundo análisis evidenció que los que habían sufrido traumas a lo largo de la vida tuvieron mayor probabilidad de tener un trastorno psiquiátrico en comparación con aquellos que no reportaron traumas. También se encontró que los que sufrieron su primer trauma durante la infancia tuvieron más probabilidad de desarrollar trastornos de pánico a lo largo de la vida que aquellos que sufrieron su primer trauma en la edad adulta, independientemente del número de traumas que sufrieron y de las diferencias demográficas. Aunque Chile tiene un contexto histórico-cultural y una economía diferente a otros países en los que se ha estudiado anteriormente la epidemiología del TEPT, el presente estudio reflejó tendencias similares a las reportadas en estudios previos. Los hallazgos expuestos enfatizan la importancia de investigar la prevalencia del TEPT, los patrones de comorbilidad del TEPT y las diferencias de sexo en la prevalencia del TEPT en diferentes países. También estos resultados sugieren que los sucesos traumáticos en la infancia (y no en la adultez) pueden estar relacionados con la ocurrencia de trastornos psiquiátricos específicos.
Introduction: The juvenile delinquency has grown worldwide in alarming form in the last time, a multicausality is recognized in the origin of this phenomenon, but it becomes necessary to identify the importance of each one of this causes, and its specific impact in the time. Objective: To identify individual, educational and family factors associated with criminal conduct in a sample of adolescent offenders. Method: Observational study, crossectional, of case-control. From a universe of adolescents between 12 years old and 17 years with 11 months and 30 days, offenders, imprisoned in penal or protection institutions, a convenience sample of 100 adolescents was chosen, which was equalled in gender, age range, and socioeconomic level with a control group of the same size. To both groups a battery of instruments, DISC IV, WISC-R or WAIS, and the Family History Screen, was applied. Results: During the 12 months prior to the study 64% of the offenders and 18% of the controls presented a psychiatric diagnosis. Among the offenders the most prevalent disorder were conduct disorder (46.99%), abuse of alcohol (26%) and dependence of other substances (18%); among the control group the most prevalent were attentional deficit disorder (5%) and conduct disorder (5%). There are statically significant differences between both groups when measuring the intellectual level of functiong, 31%) of the offenders were in the rank of borderline and 34%> of controls were classified as low average. Conclusions: Lower intellectual capacity, school failures, number of sexual partners and conduct disorder were the variables that better predicted inclusion in the group of juvenile offenders.
La delincuencia juvenil ha crecido en forma alarmante. Se reconoce en el origen del fenómeno una multicausalidad, pero se hace necesario identificar y ponderar eventuales causas y medir su impacto específico. Objetivo: Identificar prevalencias de patología psiquiátrica y variables individuales, educacionales y familiares asociadas con conductas delictivas en una muestra de adolescentes infractores de ley. Método: Estudio observacional, transversal, de caso-control. De un universo de adolescentes entre 12 y 17 años, infractores, recluidos en instituciones penales o de protección, se eligió una muestra por conveniencia de 100 sujetos y una muestra control pareada por edad y nivel socioeconómico. A ambos grupos se aplicó una batería de instrumentos, incluyendo DISC-IV, WISC-R ó WAIS, Cuestionario de Estilos de Vida y FHS. Resultados: Un 64% de los adolescentes infractores de ley y 18% de sus pares, presentaban algún diagnóstico psiquiátrico durante los doce meses previos a la entrevista. Los cuadros más prevalentes en los adolescentes infractores son trastorno disocial (46,9%), abuso de alcohol (26%) y dependencia a otras sustancias (18%). En los adolescentes no infractores son más prevalentes el déficit atencional con hieractividad (5%) y el trastorno disocial (5%). Hay diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre ambos grupos en la medición de coeficiente intelectual, un 31%) de infractores está en el rango de inteligencia limítrofe y un 34% en normal lento. Conclusiones: Menor capacidad intelectual, antecedentes de repitencia, mayor número de parejas sexuales y presencia de un trastorno disocial son las variables que mejor predicen la pertenencia al grupo de adolescentes infractores de ley.
Chile has one of the highest disease burdens caused by neuropsychiatric illnesses in the world, according to WHO, reaching to 31%- Major depression and alcohol use disorders are ranked first and second in attributed disability among adults. Nearly one-third of the population has had a psychiatric disorder in their lifetime, and 22.2% in the past year. Anxierty disorders are the most prevalent conditions, followed by major depression and alcohol abuse. Currently, mental health accounts for 2.3%) of the health care budget, which is less than some neighboring countries. The availability of 1.3 psychiatric beds per 10,000 inhabitants, is less than the mean of lower-income countries. Moreover, 81% are for chronic rather than acute care. Chile has 4.0 psychiatrist per 100,000 inhabitants, which is lower than other countries in Latin America. Only 38.5% of those patients with a psychiatric diagnosis receive any kind of mental health care, whether from a specialist or primary care. There is a perception among lay persons, that psychiatric treatments lack efficacy, despite evidence demonstrating the contrary. Not addressing the treament gap in mental health has serious public health implications
OBJECTIVE: To describe the patterns in the use of general health services and specialized health services among adults with mental health problems in Chile, as well as those persons' level of satisfaction with the services. The overall objective was to optimize the use of the limited resources available for mental health care in the countries of the Americas, especially Chile. METHODS: The diagnoses and the patterns of use of mental health services were obtained from the Chilean Study of Psychiatric Prevalence (Estudio Chileno de Prevalencia Psiquiátrica). That representative research on the adult population of Chile was based on a stratified random sample of 2 987 people 15 years old and older, done over the period of 1992 to 1999. The psychiatric diagnoses were obtained using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). The interviewees were also asked about their use of general health care services and of mental health services in the preceding six months, as well as any barriers to accessing the services. RESULTS: More than 44% of the interviewees had had contact with some type of health service during the six months prior to the study, but only 5.6% received specialized care. Those who presented with a diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive disorder or of panic disorder consulted more frequently, but not in specialized centers. Consumption of substances such as alcohol and drugs as well as antisocial personality disorder were associated with a low level of consultation. When asked about sources of assistance for mental health problems, the majority of the interviewees mentioned only the formal health care system. More than 75% of the interviewees said that they were satisfied or very satisfied with the care that they had received. CONCLUSIONS: Our results confirm the existence of a wide gap between the need for care and the treatment that is actually received. The informal and folkloric alternative resources (priests, family members, healers, herbalists, etc.) were used less frequently than is generally believed to be true. The indirect barriers of access to services-linked to a lack of knowledge and to stigma-were more frequent than were the direct barriers. A sizable number of people who did not have a positive diagnosis on the CIDI utilized mental health services.
OBJETIVO: Describir el patrón de uso de servicios generales y especializados entre los adultos con problemas de salud mental, así como su nivel de satisfacción con dichos servicios, con la finalidad de contribuir a optimizar los escasos recursos disponibles en la Región para la atención de la salud mental, particularmente en lo que corresponde a Chile. MÉTODO: Los diagnósticos y los patrones de uso de los servicios de salud mental se obtuvieron del Estudio Chileno de Prevalencia Psiquiátrica (ECPP), una investigación representativa de la población adulta del país, basada en una muestra aleatoria estratificada de 2 987 personas de 15 años y más, que abarcó el período de 1992 a 1999. Los diagnósticos psiquiátricos se obtuvieron por medio del instrumento de entrevista denominado Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Asimismo, se preguntó a los entrevistados acerca del uso de servicios generales y de salud mental en los seis meses precedentes y sobre las dificultades que encontraron para acceder a ellos. RESULTADOS: Más de 44% de los entrevistados tuvieron contacto con algún tipo de servicio de salud durante los 6 meses previos al estudio, pero solo 5,6% recibieron atención especializada. Quienes presentan los diagnósticos de trastorno obsesivo y de pánico consultan con mayor frecuencia, pero no en centros especializados. El consumo de sustancias tóxicas y la personalidad antisocial se relacionaron con un bajo nivel de consulta. El sistema formal de salud es la opción que más se menciona como recurso de ayuda. Más de 75% refieren satisfacción o gran satisfacción con la atención recibida. CONCLUSIONES: Se confirma la existencia de una amplia brecha entre las necesidades de atención y el tratamiento realmente recibido. Los recursos alternativos informales y folclóricos (sacerdote, familiares, curanderos, hierbateros [yerberos], etc.) se utilizan con una frecuencia menor de la esperada. Las barreras indirectas de acceso a los servicios resultan claramente más frecuentes y se vinculan con desconocimiento y estigma. Un número importante de personas sin diagnóstico positivo en la entrevista CIDI hace uso de los servicios de salud mental.
Background: The Diagnostic and Statistic Manual (DSM) solved the problem of diagnostic criteria for psychiatric diseases. Highly structured interviews such as Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) allow the evaluation of psychiatric disorders in large samples, whith great accuracy. Aim: To report the prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders in a representative sample of Chilean individuals. Material and methods: The CIDI was administered to 2978 Chilean individuals coming form four provinces. Lifetime and prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders, based in the third revision of the DSM, were calculated. Results: Thirty six percent of the population had a psychiatric disorder at least once in their lifetime and 23% had a disorder in the last six months. The most common lifetime diagnoses were agoraphobia in 11%, major depressive disorders in 9%, dysthymia in 8% and alcohol dependence in 6%. Only 49% of those with a psychiatric disorder sought medical care, while 4% of those individuals considered devoid of psychiatric illnesses, consulted in a mental health facility. Conclusions: The prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the Chilean population is similar to that of other Spanish speaking populations in Latin or North America (Rev Méd Chile 2002; 130: 527-36)