Abstract The “dulce de leche”, a viscous milk candy spread, is one of the most produced Brazilian dairy products. However, it is still mostly made from cow’s milk and the sheep’s milk rarely used in its production. This study aimed to obtain and physicochemically characterize the whole milks and the “dulce de leche” (DL) made from cow’s (CM) and sheep’s milk (SM), and CM:SM mixing rations of 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75 and 0:100. Milk’s physicochemical analyzes were pH, titratable acidity, density, moisture, total solids, proteins, lactose, fats, and ash. DL physicochemical analyzes were the same of the milk plus yield, color, and texture profile analysis. From inclusion of sheep’s milk, the DL presented higher values of total solids, ashes and protein, with lipids increased only from the proportion 50:50. Lactose decreased at the proportion 0:100, however, was similar to the 25:75 proportion. The moisture decreased as the inclusion of sheep’s milk on the product. Regarding color, the difference from the standard sample was verified with the inclusion of higher proportions of sheep milk. The combination of sheep’s milk and cow’s milk is a technically viable alternative, as it considerably increases the nutritional value and yield of the product.
RESUMO: O monitoramento constante da qualidade do leite por parte das indústrias beneficiadoras demanda o uso de metodologias que agregam agilidade e baixo custo por análise, como a utilização de equipamentos eletrônicos que podem ter como princípio a espectroscopia por infravermelho ou por ultrassom. No presente estudo, avaliou-se a qualidade do leite recebido por um laticínio da região extremo oeste catarinense e comparou-se duas metodologias de análise de composição química desta matéria prima, sendo que ambos os equipamentos utilizaram procedimentos padrões para calibração, considerando como referência os dados oriundos dos métodos analíticos clássicos preconizados na legislação Brasileira. Foram comparadas amostras de leite de 45 produtores para análise físico-química, de CCS e CBT, realizadas no laboratório do laticínio e em laboratório oficial. As metodologias por infravermelho (IR) e ultrassom (US) foram comparadas e correlacionadas para composição química de gordura, proteína e lactose. Os resultados demonstraram que não houve diferença significativa para as médias de gordura (P=0,06), entretanto, apresentaram diferença para proteína (P=0,001), maior para IR (3,23 vs. 3,33), e lactose (P<0,0001), maior para US (4,47 vs. 4,83). A correlação foi positiva e significativa para gordura (r=0,73, P<0,0001), proteína (r=0,47, P=0,001) e lactose (r=0,51, P=0,0003). Os resultados das análises de qualidade, considerando composição, CBT e CCS, atenderam a legislação vigente em 95,5%, 84,1% e 64,4% dos produtores, respectivamente. Concluiu-se que as metodologias afetaram os resultados, e estes podem ter sido influenciados pelo fator de correção, utilizado para calibração, sendo específicos para as amostras analisadas durante o período do estudo.
ABSTRACT: Constant monitoring of milk quality by the processing industries demands the use of methodologies that add agility and low-cost analysis, such as the use of electronic equipment based on infrared or ultrasonic spectroscopy. In the present study, quality of raw milk received by dairy farms from western region of Santa Catarina state, Brazil, was evaluated throughout two methodologies of analysis of chemical composition and compared, being that both equipment used standard procedures for calibration, considering as reference data from the classic analytical methods recommended in Brazilian legislation. Milk samples from 45 producers were analyzed for SCC, TBC and physicochemical analysis, performed at dairy’s laboratory and at the official laboratory. Infrared and ultrasound methodologies for chemical composition of fat, protein and lactose were compared and correlated. The comparison of the methods showed that there was no significant difference for the mean values of fat (P=0.06); however, they presented significant difference for protein (P=0.001), higher for IR (3.23 vs. 3.33), and lactose (P<0.0001), higher for US (4.47 vs. 4.83). Correlation was positive and significant for fat (r=0.73, P<0.0001), protein (r=0.47, P=0.001) and lactose (r=0.51, P=0.0003). Considering the minimal composition required, TBC and SCC levels, 95.5%, 84.1% and 64.4% of the milk producers met the current Brazilian legislation, respectively. It was concluded that the methodologies have affected results, which may have been influenced by the correction factor used for equipment calibration, specifically for analyzed samples during the study period.
This work evaluates the immobilization of Candida antarctica lipase (Fraction B) using poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) nanoparticles as support. The effects of immobilization time (30-150 min) and pH (5-10) on lipase loading were evaluated. The stability of the immobilized enzyme towards temperature (40, 60, and 80 ºC), reuse and storage (at 4 ºC) were also determined. Furthermore, to assess its potential application in a system of interest, the immobilized lipase was used as a catalyst in the esterification of geraniol with oleic acid. The results indicated a time of 120 minutes and pH of 7 as optimal for immobilization. A 21 hour exposure of the PHBV-lipase derivative to 60 ºC showed a 33% reduction of the initial activity while storage at 4 ºC led to a residual activity (5% of the original activity). The derivative was used without significant loss of activity for 4 successive cycles. The use of the immobilized lipase as a catalyst in the production of geranyl oleate led to about 88% conversion of the initial reactants to products.
Lipases produced by a newly isolated Sporidiobolus pararoseus strain have potential catalytic ability for esterification reactions. After production, the enzymatic extracts (conventional crude and precipitated, 'CC' and 'CP', and industrial crude and precipitated, 'IC' e 'IP') were partially characterized. The enzymes presented, in general, higher specificity for short chain alcohols and fatty acids. The precipitated extract showed a good thermal stability, higher than that for crude enzymatic extracts. The 'CC' and 'CP' enzymes presented high activities after exposure to pH 6.5 and 40 ºC. On the other hand, the 'IC' and 'IP' extracts kept their activities in a wide range of pH memory but presented preference for higher reaction temperatures. Preliminary studies of application of the crude lipase extract in the enzymatic production of geranyl propionate using geraniol and propionic acid as substrates in solvent-free system led to a reaction conversion of 42 ± 1.5%.
The lipase produced by a newly isolate Sporidiobolus pararoseus strain has potential catalysis ability for esterification reactions. In order to improve its synthetic activity, this work aimed at optimizing 'synthetic lipase' production by submerged fermentation of a conventional media based on peptone, yeast extract, NaCl and olive oil using experimental design technique. According to the results obtained in the first experimental design (2(4-1)), yeast extract and NaCl concentrations were tested to further optimization by response surface methodology. The maximum 'synthetic lipase' activity obtained was 26.9 U/mL in the optimized media (5.0, 6.8, 7.0 and 1.0% (wt/v) of peptone, yeast extract, NaCl and olive oil, respectively), representing a 6.36-fold increase compared to the initial medium. The time course of 'synthetic lipase' production in the optimized condition was evaluated in terms of synthetic activity, protease activity, biomass and total carbon and the maximum synthetic activity was observed during the stationary phase of growth.
This work aimed to study the oxidation of leaves of Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil, in a process similar to the oxidation of Camellia sinensis, with the purpose of developing new products based on yerba maté. So far, no previous systematic study about the oxidation of yerba maté has been found elsewhere. A Plackett-Burman experimental design was used for the screening of the significant parameters that affected the oxidation. The oxidation was indirectly quantified by following the changes in the product color, water activity, and pH with the time of processing. The factors that most influenced the process were the age of the leaves and the relative humidity of the oxidation chamber. The differences between the treatments were more evident after 3, 6 12 and 24 h of oxidation. The results could contribute to the developing of new products based on I. paraguariensis St. Hil, increasing the profitability of cultivation of this native species.