ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the knowledge on developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) by professionals involved in its diagnosis. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study using questionnaires to assess the knowledge about DDH. Orthopedic surgeons and pediatricians, residents and medical students from a tertiary teaching hospital were included in the study. Results: We evaluated 142 medical students, eight orthopedic residents, ten pediatric residents, seven pediatricians, and nine orthopedic surgeons; 50% declared not having examined any DDH case in the last year and only three had diagnosed more than 10 cases during their career. Regarding self-assessed knowledge (0-10), the average score was 4.25 [n=186; SD=2.43]. Nineteen percent of the participants ignored semiological tests and 26.1% of pediatricians (specialists and residents), were unaware of how to perform them. The most acknowledged and neglected risk factor was pelvic presentation (68%) and CMT (9.3%), respectively. None of the participants were able to identify all the risk factors. The average number of risk factors identified was two (n=186; SD=1.58). Forty seven point three percent of the participants failed to recognize the time of birth as the ideal moment for diagnosis; 17% reported it was after the first month. Regarding neglected severe DDH, 45.3% failed to recognize its natural history. Conclusion: Knowledge on DDH among health professionals who are involved in screening is flawed. Level of Evidence IV, Developing a Decision Model.
BACKGROUND: Left bundle-branch block (LBBB) and the presence of systolic dysfunction are the major indications for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Mechanical ventricular dyssynchrony on echocardiography can help identify patients responsive to CRT. Left bundle-branch block can have different morphologic patterns. OBJECTIVE: To compare the prevalence of mechanical dyssynchrony in different patterns of LBBB in patients with left systolic dysfunction. METHODS: This study assessed 48 patients with ejection fraction (EF) < 40% and LBBB consecutively referred for dyssynchrony analysis. Conventional echocardiography and mechanical dyssynchrony analysis were performed, interventricular and intraventricular, with ten known methods, using M mode, Doppler and tissue Doppler imaging, isolated or combined. The LBBB morphology was categorized according to left electrical axis deviation in the frontal plane and QRS duration > 150 ms. RESULTS: The patients' mean age was 60 ± 11 years, 24 were males, and mean EF was 29% ± 7%. Thirty-two had QRS > 150 ms, and22, an electrical axis between -30º and +90º. Interventricular dyssynchrony was identified in 73% of the patients, while intraventricular dyssynchrony, in 37%-98%. Patients with QRS > 150 ms had larger left atrium and ventricle, and lower EF (p < 0.05). Left electrical axis deviation associated with worse diastolic function and greater atrial diameter. Interventricular and intraventricular mechanical dyssynchrony (ten methods) was similar in the different LBBB patterns (p = ns). CONCLUSION: In the two different electrocardiographic patterns of LBBB analyzed, no difference regarding the presence of mechanical dyssynchrony was observed.
FUNDAMENTOS: O bloqueio do ramo esquerdo (BRE) e a presença de disfunção sistólica são as principais indicações de terapia de ressincronização cardíaca (TRC). A dissincronia ventricular mecânica pela ecocardiografia pode ajudar a identificar pacientes responsivos à TRC. O BRE pode mostrar diferentes padrões em sua morfologia. OBJETIVO: Comparar a prevalência de dissincronia mecânica em diferentes padrões de BRE em pacientes com disfunção sistólica esquerda. MÉTODOS: Analisaram-se 48 pacientes com fração de ejeção (FE) < 40% e BRE referidos consecutivamente para análise de dissincronia. Foram realizados ecocardiograma convencional e análise da dissincronia mecânica, interventricular e intraventricular, por 10 conhecidos métodos, usando modo M, Doppler e Doppler tecidual, sozinhos ou combinados. A morfologia do BRE foi categorizada pelo desvio esquerdo do eixo no plano frontal e duração de QRS > 150 ms. RESULTADOS: Eram 24 homens, com idade 60 ± 11 anos e FEVE de 29 ± 7%. Trinta e dois apresentavam QRS > 150 ms, e 22, ECG eixo entre -30º e +90º. A dissincronia interventricular foi identificada em 73% dos pacientes e a intraventricular em valores entre 37-98%. Portadores de QRS > 150 ms apresentaram maiores dimensões do átrio e ventrículo esquerdos, e menor FE (p < 0,05), e o desvio esquerdo do eixo associou-se a pior função diastólica e maior diâmetro atrial. A presença de dissincronia mecânica interventricular e intraventricular (10 métodos) foi semelhante entre os diferentes padrões de BRE (p = ns). CONCLUSÃO: Nos dois diferentes padrões eletrocardiográficos de BRE analisados, não foram observadas diferenças em relação à presença de dissincronia mecânica.