Abstract The global prevalence of diabetes mellitus and other metabolic diseases is rapidly increasing. Animal models play pivotal roles in unravelling disease mechanisms and developing and testing therapeutic strategies. Rodents are the most widely used animal models but may have limitations in their resemblance to human disease mechanisms and phenotypes. Findings in rodent models are consequently often difficult to extrapolate to human clinical trials. To overcome this ‘translational gap’, we and other groups are developing porcine disease models. Pigs share many anatomical and physiological traits with humans and thus hold great promise as translational animal models. Importantly, the toolbox for genetic engineering of pigs is rapidly expanding. Human disease mechanisms and targets can therefore be reproduced in pigs on a molecular level, resulting in precise and predictive porcine (PPP) models. In this short review, we summarize our work on the development of genetically (pre)diabetic pig models and how they have been used to study disease mechanisms and test therapeutic strategies. This includes the generation of reporter pigs for studying beta-cell maturation and physiology. Furthermore, genetically engineered pigs are promising donors of pancreatic islets for xenotransplantation. In summary, genetically tailored pig models have become an important link in the chain of translational diabetes and metabolic research.
There are report two human envenenomations for species from Clelia Fitzinger, 1826 (opisthoglyph snake). The patients exhibited symptoms similar from bothropic accident. Then this work have with objective, the hystological and histochemical study of Duvernoy's gland from Clelia plumbea. For the hystological observation of the Duvernoy's gland were using, with paraffin's cutting edge, two methods: Hematoxylin + Eosin and Toluidine's Blue. With historesine's cutting edge were using three methods: Metilen's Blue, Toluidine's Blue + Floxine and Toluidine's Blue. For the histochemical detection were using six techniques, with paraffin's cutting edge: PAS, PAS + Alcian Blue pH 2,5, Alcian Blue pH 2,5, PAS + Salivar Amilase, Method of Lars Grimelius and Method of Lillie. It was evidenced the predominance of serous cells on Duvernoy's gland. In relation to the histochemical constituion of the duvernoy's gland, was verified the presence of glucoconjugates neuters, enzymes and cells with reduetive activity. By fact from this species to kill his preys by constriction, the predominance of serous cells in the duvernoy's gland, don' t must be direct related with the subjugation of his preys, but with the digestive processes. Histological and histochemical analysis showed cells of Duvernoy's gland are constituted for two populations: serous cells (prodution of enzymes) and mucous cells (prodution of glucoconjugates).