Abstract We investigated whether a panel of molecular markers previously associated with temperament has an effect on live growth traits. Phenotypic data from 412 Charolais cows categorized according to their age in adult and young cows were used to determine Pearson's correlations between birth (BW), weaning (WW), and yearling live (YW) weight and temperament traits (measured as exit velocity [EV] and temperament score [TS]). For association analysis, selective genotyping of a group of 80 cows identified as the most docile and temperamental were genotyped with a 151-SNP (single-nucleotide polymorphisms) panel of molecular markers previously associated with temperament. Significant Pearson's correlations between birth weight and weaning weight and the two temperament measurements (EV and TS) were observed only in the young cow group. Significant effects of ten SNP on BW and WW were observed. Four markers located on candidate genes for temperament traits also had an effect on birth weight and weaning weight in Charolais cows, which indicates that both traits could be influenced by the same genes.