Optical chemical sensors with detection in the near and mid infrared region are reviewed. Fundamental concepts of infrared spectroscopy and optical chemical sensors are briefly described, before presenting some aspects on optical chemical sensors, such as synthesis of NIR and IR reagents, preparation of new materials as well as application in determinations of species of biological, industrial and environmental importance.
A simple and low-cost flow cell with 30 cm optical path for spectrophotometric measurements is described. It presents desirable characteristics such as low attenuation of the radiation beam and internal volume (75 µL) comparable to that of a 1-cm conventional cell (80 µL). Despite the increase in optical path, the effect on sample dispersion was also similar to that attained in the commercial cell. The performance of the cell was assessed by the determination of phosphate based on the molybdenum blue method, yielding a linear response range between 0.05 and 0.8 mg L-1 phosphorus (r=0.999). The increase in sensitivity (30.4-fold) in comparison with that obtained with a conventional 1-cm flow cell agreed with that estimated by the Lambert-Beer law.
An automated flow potentiometric titration procedure for the determination of chloride in milk and wine exploiting the monosegmented flow approach is described. The flow network was designed based on a six-way solenoid valve, controlled by a microcomputer running software written in VisualBasic 3.0, allowing selection of the titration conditions. An Ag2S tubular electrode selective for Cl- and a conventional Ag/AgCl electrode were employed as indicator and reference, respectively. An algorithm based on the potential difference between two subsequent titrant additions was developed, allowing to reach the end point in less than 10 attempts, with a precision better than 1.0%. The proposed system was evaluated by determining chloride in milk and wine, using a standard AgNO3 solution as titrant. Accuracy was ascertained by comparing the results with those obtained using the AOAC procedure. No significant difference at a 95% confidence level was observed.
Este trabalho descreve um procedimento automático em fluxo monossegmentado para titulação potenciométrica aplicado à determinação de cloreto em leite e vinho. O sistema de fluxo foi desenvolvido com base em uma válvula solenóide de 6 vias, controlada por um microcomputador através de um programa escrito em VisualBasic 3.0. Um eletrodo indicador tubular de Ag2S seletivo a Cl- e um eletrodo de referência convencional de Ag/AgCl foram empregados. Um algoritmo baseado na diferença de potencial entre duas adições subsequentes de titulante foi desenvolvido, possibilitando a determinação do ponto final da titulação em, no máximo, 10 tentativas, com uma precisão melhor que 1,0%. O sistema proposto foi avaliado pela determinação de cloreto em leite e vinho, usando uma solução padrão de AgNO3 como titulante. A exatidão foi avaliada comparando-se os resultados com aqueles obtidos pelo método da AOAC, não sendo encontradas diferenças significativas ao nível de confiança de 95%.