ABSTRACT Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is the catch all terms that used to explain several different modern sequencing technologies which let us to sequence nucleic acids much more rapidly and cheaply than the formerly used Sanger sequencing, and as such have revolutionized the study of molecular biology and genomics with excellent resolution and accuracy. Over the past years, many academic companies and institutions have continued technological advances to expand NGS applications from research to the clinic. In this review, the performance and technical features of current NGS platforms were described. Furthermore, advances in the applying of NGS technologies towards the progress of clinical molecular diagnostics were emphasized. General advantages and disadvantages of each sequencing system are summarized and compared to guide the selection of NGS platforms for specific research aims.
ABSTRACT: CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Red grape seed extract (RGSE) contains oligomeric proanthocyanidin complexes as a class of flavonoids. These compounds are potent antioxidants and exert many health-promoting effects. This study aimed to determine the effects of RGSE on serum levels of triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), apolipoprotein AI (apo-AI) levels and paraoxonase (PON) activity in patients with mild to moderate hyperlipidemia (MMH). DESIGN AND SETTINGS: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted at Shahid-Modarres Hospital (Tehran, Iran) and Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. Seventy MMH patients were randomly assigned to receive treatment (200 mg/day of RGSE) or placebo for eight weeks. RESULTS: Significant elevation in serum levels of apo-AI (P = 0.001), HDL-C (P = 0.001) and PON activity (P = 0.001) and marked decreases in concentrations of TC (P = 0.015), TG (P = 0.011) and LDL-C (P = 0.014) were found in the cases. PON activity was significantly correlated with apo-AI (r = 0.270; P < 0.01) and HDL-C (r = 0.45; P < 0.001). Significant differences between the RGSE and control groups (before and after treatment) for TC (P = 0.001), TG (P = 0.001), PON (P = 0.03), apo-AI (P = 0.001) and LDL-C (P = 0.002) were seen. CONCLUSION: It is possible that RGSE increases PON activity mostly through increasing HDL-C and apo-AI levels in MMH patients. It may thus have potential beneficial effects in preventing oxidative stress and atherosclerosis in these patients.
RESUMO: CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: Extrato de semente de uva vermelha (RGSE) contém complexos de proantocianidinas oligoméricas como classe de flavonoides. Estes compostos são antioxidantes potentes e exercem muitos efeitos de promoção da saúde. Este estudo visou determinar os efeitos de RGSE nos níveis séricos de triglicérides (TG), colesterol total (TC), colesterol de lipoproteína alta-densidade (HDL-C), colesterol de lipoproteína baixa-densidade (LDL-C), apolipoproteína AI (apo-AI) e atividade de paraoxonase (PON) em pacientes com hiperlipidemia leve a moderada (MMH). DESENHO E LOCAL: Estudo clínico randomizado duplo-cego controlado com placebo, realizado no Hospital Shahid-Modarres (Teerã, Irã) e na Universidade de Ciências Médicas de Tabriz. Setenta pacientes com MMH foram aleatoriamente designados para receber tratamento (200 mg/dia de RGSE) ou placebo durante oito semanas. RESULTADOS: Elevação significativa nos níveis séricos de apo-AI (P = 0,001), HDL-C (P = 0,001) e atividade de PON (P = 0,001) e diminuição marcada nas concentrações de TC (P = 0,015), TG (P = 0,011) e LDL-C (P = 0,014) foram encontradas nos casos. Atividade de PON mostrou correlação significativa com apo-AI (r = 0,270; P < 0,01) e HDL-C (r = 0,45; P < 0,001). Diferenças significativas entre os grupos RGSE e controle (antes e após tratamento) para TC (P = 0,001), TG (P = 0,001), PON (P = 0,03), apo-AI (P = 0,001) e LDL-C (P = 0,002) foram observadas. CONCLUSÃO: É possível que RGSE aumente atividade de PON principalmente através da elevação dos níveis de HDL-C e apo-AI em pacientes MMH. Ele pode, assim, ter efeitos benéficos potenciais na prevenção de estresse oxidativo e aterosclerose nesses pacientes.