Abstract Purpose: To analyze, histomorphologically, the influence of the geometry of nanostructured hydroxyapatite and alginate (HAn/Alg) composites in the initial phase of the bone repair. Methods: Fifteen rats were distributed to three groups: MiHA - bone defect filled with HAn/Alg microspheres; GrHA - bone defect filled with HAn/Alg granules; and DV - empty bone defect; evaluated after 15 days postoperatively. The experimental surgical model was the critical bone defect, ≅8.5 mm, in rat calvaria. After euthanasia the specimens were embedded in paraffin and stained with hematoxylin and eosin, picrosirius and Masson-Goldner’s trichrome. Results: The histomorphologic analysis showed, in the MiHA, deposition of osteoid matrix within some microspheres and circumjacent to the others, near the bone edges. In GrHA, the deposition of this matrix was scarce inside and adjacent to the granules. In these two groups, chronic granulomatous inflammation was noted, more evident in GrHA. In the DV, it was observed bone neoformation restricted to the bone edges and formation of connective tissue with reduced thickness in relation to the bone edges, throughout the defect. Conclusion: The geometry of the biomaterials was determinant in the tissue response, since the microspheres showed more favorable to the bone regeneration in relation to the granules.
Abstract The aim of this study is to evaluate the biocompatibility and osteoconductivity in surgical defects of sheep tibias filled with 1% strontium-containing nanostructured hydroxyapatite microspheres (SrHA), stoichiometric hydroxyapatite without strontium microspheres (HA), or blood clots. Santa Ines sheep were subjected to three perforations on the medial side of the left tibia. The biomaterials were characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) before implantation and by X-Ray Microfluorescence (µFRX) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) after sheep tibias implantation. Surgical defects were filled with blood clots (control), SrHA (Group 1) or HA (Group 2). After 30 days, 5-µm bone blocks were obtained for histological evaluation, and the blocks obtained from 1 animal were embedded in methylmethacrylate for undecalcified sections. Mononuclear inflammatory infiltrate remained mild in all experimental groups. Giant cells were observed surrounding biomaterials particles of both groups and areas of bone formation were detected in close contact with biomaterials. All groups showed newly formed bone from the periphery to the center of the defects, which the control, HA and SrHA presented 36.4% (± 21.8), 31.2% (± 14.7) and 26.2% (± 12.9) of newly formed bone density, respectively, not presenting statistical differences. In addition, the connective tissue density did not show any significant between groups. The SrHA showing a higher volume density of biomaterial (51.2 ± 14.1) present in the defect compared to HA (32.6 ± 8.5) after 30 days (p = 0.03). Microspheres containing 1% SrHA or HA can be considered biocompatible, have osteoconductive properties and may be useful biomaterials for clinical applications.
In this work, the synthetic hydroxyapatite (HAP) was studied using different preparation routes to decrease the crystal size and to study the temperature effect on the HAP nano-sized hydroxyapatite crystallization. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis indicated that all samples were composed by crystalline and amorphous phases . The sample with greater quantity of amorphous phase (40% of total mass) was studied. The nano-sized hydroxyapatite powder was heated and studied at 300, 500, 700, 900 and 1150 °C. All samples were characterized by XRD and their XRD patterns refined using the Rietveld method. The crystallites presented an anisotropic form, being larger in the  direction. It was observed that the crystallite size increased continuously with the heating temperature and the eccentricity of the ellipsoidal shape changed from 2.75 at 300 °C to 1.94, 1.43, 1.04 and 1.00 respectively at 500, 700, 900 and 1150 °C. In order to better characterize the morphology of the HAP the samples were also examined using atomic force microscopy (AFM), infrared spectrometry (IR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).
OBJECTIVE: Xenografts are an alternative to autogenous grafts and must be osteoconductive and biocompatible. A recent study has demonstrated that the physical and chemical characteristics of commercially available hydroxyapatites do not fit the manufacturers' descriptions. This study evaluates the biocompatibility and osteoconduction of a xenograft derived from bovine medullary bone. METHODS: Fifteen adult rabbits weighing between 2,500 g and 3,000 g each were anesthetized and subjected to surgical procedures to create three perforations in the tibia, with a diameter of 2 mm. These were filled with blood clot, Osseus® and Bio-Oss®. The animals were euthanized after 7, 14 and 28 days. RESULTS: Histopathological analysis of the interface between the bone and the biomaterial showed a slight inflammatory response after 7 days, which was absent in the subsequent periods. Both materials were partially replaced by bone tissue directly in contact with the surface of the materials, without the occurrence of fibrosis. CONCLUSION: We concluded that both materials are biocompatible and absorbable, allowing for progressive bone apposition on the surface throughout the evaluation period.
OBJETIVO: Os xenoenxertos são uma alternativa aos enxertos autogênicos e devem ser osteocondutores e biocompatíveis. Um estudo recente demonstrou que as características físicas e químicas das hidroxiapatitas encontradas no comércio não são condizentes com as descrições dos fabricantes. Este estudo avalia a biocompatibilidade e a osteocondução de um xenoenxerto derivado de osso medular bovino. MÉTODOS: Quinze coelhos adultos, pesando entre 2.500g e 3.000g cada um, foram anestesiados e submetidos a procedimentos cirúrgicos para criar três perfurações na tíbia, com 2 mm de diâmetro. Esses orifícios foram preenchidos com coágulo sanguineo, Osseus® e Bio-Oss®. Os animais foram sacrificados depois de 7, 14 e 28 dias. RESULTADOS: A análise histopatológica da interface de osso e biomaterial mostrou ligeira resposta inflamatória depois de 7 dias, que esteve ausente nos períodos subsequentes. Ambos os materiais foram parcialmente substituídos por tecido ósseo diretamente em contato com a superfície dos materiais, sem ocorrência de fibrose. CONCLUSÃO: Concluímos que ambos os materiais são biocompatíveis e absorvíveis, o que permite progressiva aposição óssea na superfície durante todo o período de avaliação.
Synthetic porous ceramics can be used as three-dimensional scaffolds for bone repair. The aim of this work is to correlate process parameters with scaffolds structural characteristics. The factorial 2 level experimental design was chosen to study the effect of the Ca/P ratio (1.58 or 1.67), calcination temperature (1000 or 1150 °C) and porogen content (20 or 40%) on the calcium phosphate samples characteristics. The influence of such parameters was determined by X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy and image analysis. It was observed that phase composition was basically a function of the Ca/P ratio of the raw material. The use of the porogen did not alter the hydroxyapatite (HA)/tricalcium phosphate (TCP) content, but induced changes in the relative content of TCP phase (alpha or beta). It is possible to design a porous sample with defined characteristics, and the model herein used can be considered as having a good predictive power.