Objective: We investigated: i) the reliability and validity of a Brazilian version of the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences (CAPE), developed to detect and characterize psychotic experiences in the general population; and ii) the association between psychotic experiences, childhood adversity, and cannabis use in a population-based sample. Methods: We performed factorial analyses and generalized linear models with CAPE scores as the dependent variable in a sample composed of 217 first-episode psychosis patients, 104 unaffected biological siblings, and 319 non-psychotic population-based participants. Results: After removing seven items from its positive dimension and two items from its negative dimension, a 33-item Brazilian version of the CAPE showed acceptable adjustment indices (confirmatory fit index = 0.895; goodness of fit index = 0.822; parsimony goodness of fit index = 0.761; root mean square error of approximation [RMSEA] = 0.055, p [RMSEA ≤ 0.05] = 0.04) and internal consistency in all its dimensions (> 0.70). Childhood adversity was associated with higher scores in all three dimensions, as well as with total score. Lifetime cannabis use was associated with higher scores only in the positive dimension. Conclusion: The proposed Brazilian version of the CAPE corroborates the tridimensional approach for assessing psychosis-proneness, and the frequency and severity of psychotic manifestations are distributed as a spectrum in the general population.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the causes and degree of interobserver variability in esophageal pH monitoring for the diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux. METHODS: This retrospective study included all children (n = 72) who underwent pH monitoring during 1 year at Maxima Medical Centre in Veldhoven, the Netherlands. RESULTS: An interobserver variability of 18% was found. Variability was caused by differences in opinion about the duration of registration, doubts about probe position, artifacts and drift of baseline pH. CONCLUSIONS: Most of these problems can be eliminated by posttest calibration and assessment of the pH electrode position. However, a clear definition of monitoring artifacts is lacking. This study shows that mutual agreement in the interpretation of pH studies was fair (kappa coefficient of 0.70).
OBJETIVO: O monitoramento do pH esofágico é considerado o método mais confiável para diagnosticar o refluxo gastroesofágico. No entanto, a interpretação do mesmo estudo de pH pode diferir entre observadores. Neste estudo, investigamos as causas e o grau de variabilidade entre observadores. MÉTODOS: Este estudo retrospectivo incluiu todas as crianças (n = 72) que realizaram monitoramento de pH durante 1 ano no Maxima Medical Centre, em Veldhoven, Holanda. RESULTADOS: Foi encontrada uma variabilidade de 18% entre observadores. A variabilidade foi causada por diferenças de opinião sobre a duração do registro, dúvidas sobre a posição da sonda, artefatos e flutuação do pH de base. CONCLUSÕES: A maioria desses problemas pode ser eliminada por avaliação da posição do eletrodo de pH e calibração pós-teste. No entanto, ainda falta uma definição clara dos artefatos de monitoramento. Este estudo mostra que a concordância mútua na interpretação dos estudos de pH foi regular (coeficiente kappa de 0,70).