Research in the area of science teaching has highlighted the importance of using argumentation in the classroom, as well as preparing teachers to undertake and conduct activities of this nature. In order to bring elements that contribute to the progress of discussions about the subject, we investigated implementing and developing two teaching strategies (ludic activities and chemistry experiments) in lessons taught by pre-service teachers in supervised internships and we identified their pro-argumentation actions. The results showed that pre-service teachers not fully achieved the task of promoting argumentation practices in chemistry classes, emphasizing their ease and difficulties throughout the activity.
Although the impacts of science discoveries are relevant to society, awareness of this intellectual output is still minimal. Much of this communicative failure between researchers and the general public lies in the disclosure, which contributes to the superficiality and misinterpretations of the content served. Strategies need to be found to improve science communication worldwide, promoting well-grounded content and accessible language to a non-specialist audience. This work aims to report writing strategies used in a course about public communication of science, offered to undergraduate chemistry students. The results showed that students fully achieved the task of writing popular science texts as a science journalist, emphasizing their ease and difficulties throughout the activity.
Inscriptions - graphs, diagrams, photographs, tables, and so forth - are central to scientific practice. In this study, a semiotic model was used to evaluate the reading of inscriptions by undergraduate chemistry students when giving oral presentations based on original research articles about environmental chemistry. Results revealed that the model helps to identify the extension of the adequacy of using inscriptions by the students in communicative situations. Potentialities and limitations of the model for chemistry education are discussed.
Collective authorship or a text written by more than one person in a computer-based environment can bring significant benefits to chemistry teaching, mainly concerning flexibilizing forms of interaction among those involved and collaborative construction of knowledge. This work investigates collective authorship activities based on constructing argumentative texts in groups with the participation of undergraduate chemistry students. In the activity, those involved, divided into groups, followed the textual production process aiming to present a joint solution for case studies. It was possible to understand aspects of collective work in the authorship process in question regarding collaboration and cooperation based on two perspectives considered crucial for collaborative writing: conditions offered by the electronic platform called eduqui.info, and in which contexts these possibilities were present in the writing process; and the organisational aspects of the activity. Overall, groups chose to collaborate more than cooperate. In other words, data shows that most of the students worked collaboratively in groups.
Oral presentation (OP) integrates social practices from the academic community, whereby knowledge about the subjects under study can be disseminated and discussed. On the other hand, systematic work is not verified for learning this genre in undergraduate chemistry teaching. In this perspective, this article aims to report on a classroom activity used in a scientific communication course in order to improve the skills needed for chemistry students to develop OP. The students were asked to prepare an OP by reading original research articles published in the Química Nova journal on the subject of biodiesel. The OPs were analyzed according to the Teachable Dimensions of the Oral Presentation Genre so as to indicate both the actions that make the production of this genre feasible and those that hinder it. The results suggest the relevance of commitment to OP teaching and learning in chemistry courses, which is a complex activity, but fundamental for undergraduate education.
This paper addresses a didactic activity based on computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) principles applied to a scientific communication course offered to undergraduate chemistry students. We investigated the dynamics of interactions among the students within the groups focusing on skills of conversation described in the Collaborative Learning Model developed by Soller et al. In a virtual learning environment named eduqui.info students solved investigative case studies related to environmental pollution caused by plastic and oil, replacement of aviation gasoline by ethanol and replacement of trans fat found in foods. The messages posted on eduqui.info Forum were analyzed for the identification of the students' collaboration effectiveness. The major subskills related to Collaborative Learning Model found in the students' messages were inform, argue and request. Activities like the one addressed in this study can help undergraduate chemistry students to learn and apply core scientific concepts and skills.
School science teaching has traditionally been focused on the content of science. However, recent debates about science education emphasize the importance of the nature of science and the process of argument. In order to change the emphasis in teaching science to incorporate argumentation, teachers need to adopt more dialogic approaches that involve students in discussion, and to consider how they themselves interact with students to foster argumentation skills. In this paper we examine the pre-service chemistry teachers' ability to incorporate and use argumentation in their teaching. The chemistry lessons conducted by four pre-service teachers were audiotaped and transcribed in full and the transcript sections were coded using a framework for argumentation processes. An analysis of the audiotaped lessons transcripts suggested that three factors that promoted argumentation in pre-service teachers' classrooms emerged from the data. These factors included: the role of pre-service teachers in encouraging students to share their ideas and comments, providing evidence that support students ideas, and implementing instructional strategies that give students an opportunity to articulate and support an explanation in an argument.
Blogs and other technology tools are commonly used in our society. Although we are familiar with the use of technology for social interaction, its application in the classroom environment is still not fully appreciated by the teaching community as a useful learning tool. This paper sheds light on this use by presenting the analysis of the comments posted on a blog used by undergraduate chemistry students for a scientific communication undergraduate course. On the course, students used the blog to ask questions and discuss assignments. All the comments were monitored by the professor and her teaching assistant, who also posted their comments. We analyzed the content of these comments using the model proposed by Henri and adapted by McKenzie and Murphy. The results show a predominance of administrative comments, followed by course content comments. The findings also indicated that this tool complements classroom discussions, supports the participation of students who would otherwise not take part, and allows a continuous learning process for all the students. We concluded that the use of blogs improved the classroom experience and supported the instructional classroom activities.
The importance of teaching scientific communication skills in undergraduate chemistry courses is well recognized. This paper provides an overview of didactic activities in which students engage to improve these skills. The study was based on an extensive literature review performed on the Journal of Chemical Education and on the Journal of College Science Teaching, in the years spanning from 1991 to 2010, and on The Chemical Educator, from 1996 to 2010. The findings from the study provided an opportunity to expand the knowledge on the variety of methods and contents used to teach scientific communication skills in undergraduate chemistry education, as well as to deepen our understanding of the effects of different approaches to teaching on performance in practice.
Estudos sobre argumentação são recentes na área de pesquisa em Educação em Ciências, existindo ainda muitos aspectos não explorados. Entre as questões a considerar estão: "É a qualidade da argumentação determinada pela presença de elementos como justificativas e qualificadores modais ou pelo grau de persuasão dos argumentos?"; "Os professores de ciências devem ensinar os alunos a argumentar?". Este estudo investiga a potencialidade do ensino da estrutura de um "bom" argumento, baseado no Esquema de Argumento de Toulmin, como apoio ao desenvolvimento de habilidades argumentativas de alunos de graduação em química. Os resultados indicam que esse tipo de intervenção didática oferece subsídios para o desenvolvimento das referidas habilidades.
Argumentation is a recent focus in science education research, so there are many areas requiring further research. Questions that need to be addressed include the following: "Is the quality of argumentation determined by the presence of particular elements such as warrants and qualifiers or by the level of persuasiveness of the arguments?"; "Should science educators teach argumentation?" This study examines the effects of teaching the appropriate structure of scientific arguments based on Toulmin's argument scheme to support the development of argumentation skills in undergraduate chemistry students. Results provide indication that this kind of intervention may support the development of argumentation skills in chemistry students.
En este artículo se describe un ejercicio de revisión de pares empleado en un curso de la licenciatura en química, en el cual los estudiantes escribieron y prepararon una crítica a los textos científicos producidos por otros estudiantes de la clase. Se investigaron, con base en los comentarios críticos realizados por los pares, las evidencias de la apropiación del discurso científico y una mejor comprensión de su práctica por los estudiantes. Adicionalmente, se presentan nuestras propias conclusiones sobre tal ejercicio aplicado en un curso de química orgánica ofrecido en una universidad pública brasileña.
In this article we describe a peer review exercise used in undergraduate chemistry course in which the students wrote and prepared critique of scientific texts produced by other students in the class. We investigated, based on the critical comments made by the peers, evidences of the appropriation of scientific discourse and a better understanding of its practice by the students. Additionally, we present our own conclusions on the use of such exercise applied to an organic chemistry course offered to undergraduate chemistry students at a Brazilian public university
This study aimed to analyze the aspects of scientific language considered by chemistry professors in the evaluation of scientific texts authored by undergraduate chemistry students. Interviews were conducted with four professors who had evaluated reports and scientific articles written by students enrolled in undergraduate chemistry courses. The professors highlighted aspects pertaining to the structure and general organization of scientific texts typically adopted by the scientific community, and mentioned the importance of certain rhetoric elements in scientific language. This study can be an impetus for further investigation into the importance of language in chemistry education.
In this paper, we describe an educational experience involving the use of the jigsaw method on the Medicinal Chemistry course at the University of São Paulo, Brazil. The goal of this proposal was to investigate acceptance and contributions of the method to undergraduate chemistry teaching. Feedback on the jigsaw method collected from the focus groups and questionnaires showed that participants generally acknowledged the advantages of the jigsaw method in helping them learn the Medicinal Chemistry subject. Suggestions for improving the jigsaw method were also received from participants.
Neste trabalho temos como objetivo a análise de artigos publicados na revista Ciência Hoje, visando auxiliar o professor no seu uso como recurso didático em aulas de química. Os artigos foram analisados com base na Análise de Discurso de linha francesa, considerando os estudos de Zamboni a respeito das características do discurso da divulgação científica, especialmente a identificação dos traços de cientificidade, didaticidade e laicidade. A identificação de tais traços se traduz em um artifício relevante para o professor de química, que poderá escolher textos mais adequados aos objetivos educacionais.
The objective of this study is to investigate articles published in Ciência Hoje magazine and to assist teachers to use them in chemistry classes. The articles were analyzed from the perspective of French Discourse Analysis, considering Zamboni studies, according to the concept of popularization of scientific discourse specifically the identification of scientificity, didacticity, and laicity traces. Such identification is an important tool for the chemistry teacher to choose the most suitable articles for educational purposes.
El empleo de textos de divulgación de la ciencia en la educación formal ha sido discutido por varios investigadores en el campo de la educación química. Tales debates sugieren que estos textos pueden servir como instrumentos de motivación en la clase. En este artículo se discuten algunas experiencias sobre el uso de libros de divulgación en la educación química. Así, fue implementada una propuesta que se basa en el texto Tío Tungstenio: Memorias de una Infancia Química, de Oliver Sacks. El objetivo fue investigar la comprensión, aceptación y contribuciones para la enseñanza de la química en la licenciatura. El estudio involucró la producción de preguntas de los estudiantes acerca de algunos de los capítulos del libro. Adicionalmente se presentan las conclusiones de los autores sobre la utilización con estudiantes de licenciatura de tal metodología en el curso de Química Estructural de la Universidad de São Paulo, Brasil.
The use of popular science texts in formal education has been discussed by researchers in the field of chemistry education. Such discussions suggest that these texts can be an instrument of motivation in the classroom. In this paper, we describe some educational experiences on the use of popular science texts in chemistry education. Thus, a teaching proposal was implemented based on the book Uncle Tungsten: Memories of a Chemical Boyhood, by Oliver Sacks. The goal of this proposal was to investigate its understanding, acceptance, and contributions to undergraduate chemistry teaching. The study involved the production of questions by the students about some chapters of that book. Additionally, we present our own conclusions on the use of such methodology applied to a structural chemistry course offered to undergraduate chemistry students at the University of São Paulo, Brazil.