The increase in non-communicable chronic diseases of adults is due to demographic changes and changes in the risk factors related to physical activity, smoking habits and nutrition. We describe the methodology for the evaluation of persons at 23/25 years of age of a cohort of individuals born in Ribeirão Preto in 1978/79. We present their socioeconomic characteristics and the profile of some risk factors for chronic diseases. A total of 2063 participants were evaluated by means of blood collection, standardized questionnaires, anthropometric and blood pressure measurements, and methacholine bronchoprovocation tests. The sexes were compared by the chi-square test, with alpha = 0.05. Obesity was similar among men and women (12.8 and 11.1%); overweight was almost double in men (30.3 vs 17.7%). Weight deficit was higher among women than among men (8.6 and 2.6%). Women were more sedentary and consumed less alcohol and tobacco. Dietary fat consumption was similar between sexes, with 63% consuming large amounts (30 to 39.9 g/day). Metabolic syndrome was twice more frequent among men than women (10.7 vs 4.8%), hypertension was six times more frequent (40.9 vs 6.4%); altered triglyceride (16.1 vs 9.8%) and LDL proportions (5.4 vs 2.7%) were also higher in men, while women had a higher percentage of low HDL (44.7 vs 39.5%). Asthma and bronchial hyper-responsiveness were 1.7 and 1.5 times more frequent, respectively, among women. The high prevalence of some risk factors for chronic diseases among young adults supports the need for investments in their prevention.
An alternative way to assess the drainable porosity as a function of soil-water tension, from the soil-water retention curve (Van Genuchten's model), is presented for data of a clayey holm gley soil of the county of Piracicaba, SP, Brazil. Soil-water retention curves were determined using undisturbed soil samples. The analysis of the results has shown that the data variability was mainly due to random causes. Statistical indexes used to verify the degree of fitting of the experimental data to the proposed model, have shown that the model can be used to estimate the drainable porosity from the empirical parameters of the Van Genuchten model.
Um modo alternativo para estimativa da porosidade drenável em função da tensão da água no solo a partir da equação de VAN GENUCHTEN para a curva de retenção, é apresentado e testado para dados obtidos de um solo de várzea ( Gleissolo Eutrófico, textura argilosa). Curvas de retenção de água foram elaboradas com amostras de solo com estrutura indeformada. Na análise dos resultados verificou-se que o maior componente de erro foi devido a causas aleatórias, representando cerca de 12 vezes o erro sistemático. Os índices estatísticos utilizados para verificar o grau de ajuste dos dados experimentais à relação funcional apresentada entre porosidade drenável e tensão de água no solo, mostraram que esta relação pode ser utilizada para estimativa da porosidade drenável, a partir do conhecimento dos parâmetros empíricos da equação de VAN GENUCHTEN.