Abstract Eimeriosis is caused by a protozoan parasite of the genus Eimeria and infection affecting most domestic animal species. The aim of this research was to comprehend the impact of selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) on eimeriosis induced by Eimeria papillata in mouse jejunum, and how they work as antioxidants and anti-apoptotic agents against eimeriosis. The numbers of meronts, gamonts, and developing oocysts of E. papillata reduced after the infected mice were treated with the SeNPs. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), and other oxidative stress-related molecules, such as glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD), were assayed. E. papillata was able to change the redox status of the jejunal cells; this was confirmed by the elevation of the MDA and NO levels, and the decrease of the GSH levels and the activities of the antioxidant enzymes CAT and SOD. SeNP treatment significantly reversed this disturbance of the redox status. The expression levels of the apoptotic markers Bax and caspase-3 in the jejunal samples were evaluated using qRT-PCR. The SeNPs decreased the Bax and caspase-3 expression after being administered to the E. papillata-infected mice. Collectively, the SeNPs demonstrated antioxidant and anti-apoptotic activities against murine eimeriosis.
Abstract Eimeriosis is a global poultry health problem. In the current study, we investigated the role of Salvadora persica leaf extracts (SE) against murine eimeriosis induced by Eimeria papillata. The infection induced an oocyst output of 6242 ± 731 oocysts/g feces. After treatment with 300 mg⁄kg SE, the oocysts expelled in feces decreased by approximately 3-fold. In addition, the total number of E. papillata in the parasitic stage decreased in the jejunum of mice after treatment with SE. In addition, SE significantly reduced the number of apoptotic cells by approximately 2-fold in the infected jejunum. SE ameliorated the changes in glutathione, malondialdehyde, and catalase due to E. papillata infection. Finally, SE regulated the cytokine genes, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, interferon-γ, and tumor necrosis factor-α, and the apoptotic genes, B-cell lymphoma-2, Bax, and Caspase-3. SE protects the jejunum from E. papillata induced injury and may have potential therapeutic value as a food additive during eimeriosis.
Resumo A eimeriose é um problema global de saúde avícola. No presente estudo, investigou-se o papel dos extratos de folhas de Salvadora persica (SE) contra a eimeriose murina induzida por Eimeria papillata. A infecção induziu uma produção de oocistos de 6242 ± 731 oocistos/g de fezes. Após o tratamento com 300 mg⁄kg SE, os oocistos eliminados nas fezes diminuíram em aproximadamente 3 vezes. Além disso, o número total de E. papillata no estágio parasitário diminuiu nos jejunos de camundongos após o tratamento com SE. Da mesma forma, o SE reduziu significativamente o número de células apoptóticas em aproximadamente 2 vezes no jejuno infectado. O estudo mostrou que o SE melhorou as alterações na glutationa, malonaldeído e catalase devido à infecção por E. papillata. Finalmente, o SE regulou os genes das citocinas, interleucina (IL) -1β, IL-6, interferon-γ e fator de necrose tumoral α, e os genes apoptóticos, linfoma-2, Bax e Caspase-3. Assim, o SE protegeu os jejunos das lesões induzidas por E. papillata e pode ter potencial valor terapêutico como aditivo alimentar durante a eimeriose.
Abstract Native and acetylated freeze-dried gum cordia (GC) was replaced at 0, 3, 5 and 10% (w/w) of wheat flour, and their pasting and rheological properties were studied. The pasting data indicated a significant (p≤0.05) increase in peak and final viscosities of blends: especially at higher GC concentrations. The shearing profiles signified an increase in shear stress as a function of shear rate confirming a pseudoplastic behavior of the blends (n<1). The consistency coefficient (K) and flow behavior index (n) were estimated using a power law model where higher ‘K’ values strengthened the pasting data. The activation energies (Ea) calculated by Arrhenius equation were observed between 5.7-7.5 and 5.9-8.4 kJ/mol for native and acetylated gels, respectively. The highest hardness was observed for 10% acetylated GC gel while the same concentration of native GC depicted opposite trend.