Abstract Objective: To analyze the difference of socioeconomic factors among mothers of preterm and full-term infants. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional retrospective study was developed with 250 mothers of children aged three to five years. The sample was divided into two groups: 125 mothers of preterm infants from the referral center of a public hospital in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil and 125 mothers of children born full-term at a daycare center within the same city. A pre-tested questionnaire was used to collect socioeconomic data and type of breastfeeding. To verify if there was association between the dependent variable gestational age at birth and the independent variables, the chi-square test was used. A final model with multiple Poisson regression estimated prevalence ratio values for each independent variable was developed. Results: The final multiple regression model showed that mothers that have a low monthly income of up to USD 450.28 (PR = 1.979, 95% CI = 1.082-3.620), used drugs, cigarettes, or alcohol during their pregnancy (PR = 4.095, 95% CI = 2.422-6.921), and did not breastfeed (PR = 2.294, 95% CI = 1.205-4.369) were more likely to give birth to preterm infants. Conclusion: Low monthly family income, use of drugs, alcohol, or smoking during pregnancy and absence of breastfeeding were more frequent on mothers of preterm infants.
El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la prevalencia del consumo compulsivo de alcohol por parte de adolescentes y su asociación con la densidad de establecimientos de venta de alcohol próximos a escuelas. Este estudio transversal se realizó en Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil, con 436 estudiantes de escuelas secundarias con edades comprendidas entre los 17-19 años, inscritos en 18 escuelas públicas y privadas. Los estudiantes completaron con Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT-C) preguntas sobre el consumo de alcohol por parte de padres y hermanos, así como de su estatus socioeconómico (tipo de escuela, nivel de escolarización de la madre). Los datos del sistema de informaciones geográficas se usaron para calcular la densidad de establecimientos de venta de alcohol en los alrededores de las escuelas participantes. La asociación entre las variables exploratorias y el consumo compulsivo de alcohol fue investigado usando un análisis de regresión logística multinivel (p < 0,05) con intersecciones aleatorias y curvas fijas. Se adoptó una estrategia de modelado secuencial en tres pasos. La prevalencia de consumo compulsivo de alcohol fue de 39,9%. El consumo de alcohol entre adolescentes fue más bajo entre quienes estudiaban en áreas con baja densidad de establecimientos de venta de alcohol alrededor de las escuelas (OR = 0,32; IC95%: 0,14; 0,73), además el consumo de alcohol en madres estuvo asociado con el consumo de alcohol en adolescentes (OR = 1,94; IC95%: 1,14; 3,30). La conclusión fue que el consumo compulsivo de alcohol en adolescentes estaba asociado con la densidad de establecimientos de venta de alcohol en los alrededores de las escuelas y el consumo de alcohol por parte de la madre.
Our study sought to evaluate the prevalence of binge drinking in adolescents and its association with density of alcohol outlets around schools. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, with 436 high-school students aged between 17 and 19 and enrolled in 18 public and private schools. The students completed the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT-C), consisting of questions about alcohol consumption by parents and siblings, and socioeconomic status (type of school, mother’s education level). Data from geographic information systems were used to estimate the density of alcohol outlets around schools participating. The association between exploratory variables and binge drinking was investigated using multilevel logistic regression analysis (p < 0.05) with random intercepts and fixed slopes. A three-step sequential modeling strategy was adopted. The prevalence of binge drinking was 39.9%. The alcohol consumption among adolescents was lower for those studying in areas with low density of alcohol outlets around schools (OR = 0.32; 95%CI: 0.14; 0.73) and the consumption of alcohol by mothers was associated with binge drinking among adolescents (OR = 1.94; 95%CI: 1.14; 3.30). Our study concluded that binge drinking among adolescents was associated with density of alcohol outlets around the schools and mother’s alcohol consumption.
O estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a prevalência de consumo excessivo episódico de álcool entre adolescentes e a associação com a densidade de locais de venda de bebidas alcoólicas no entorno das escolas. Um estudo transversal foi realizado em Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil, com 436 estudantes de segundo grau entre 17 e 19 anos de idade matriculados em 18 escolas públicas e privadas. Os estudantes responderam perguntas do Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT-C) sobre consumo de álcool pelos pais e irmãos, além de características socioeconômicas (tipo de escola, escolaridade materna). Foram utilizados dados de sistemas de informações geográficas para calcular a densidade de locais de venda de bebidas alcoólicas em torno das escolas participantes. A associação entre variáveis independentes e consumo excessivo episódico de álcool foi investigada por análise de regressão logística multivariada (p < 0,05) com interceptos randômicos e inclinações fixas. Foi adotada uma estratégia de modelagem sequencial em três passos. A prevalência de consumo excessivo episódico de álcool foi de 39,9%. O consumo de álcool entre adolescentes foi mais baixo naqueles que estudavam em áreas com baixa densidade de locais de venda de bebidas alcoólicas em torno das escolas (OR = 0,32; IC95%: 0,14; 0,73), e o consumo de álcool pelas mães esteve associado ao consumo excessivo episódico de álcool pelos adolescentes (OR = 1,94; IC95%: 1,14; 3,30), Em conclusão, consumo excessivo episódico de álcool por adolescentes mostrou associação com a densidade de locais de venda de bebidas alcoólicas no entorno das escolas e com o consumo materno de álcool.
Abstract Adolescence is a vulnerable period for risk-taking tendencies, including binge drinking. The aim of this study was to examined the prevalence of binge drinking and its association with factors related to the consumption of alcoholic beverages by best friend, familial factors, socioeconomic status and religiosity. A Census of 633 students from public and private schools in Diamantina-MG was conducted. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-C (AUDIT-C) and, another on the consumption of alcohol by family and friends. Surveys inquiring about socioeconomic conditions were sent to parents/guardians. Descriptive and bivariate analyzes were performed (p < 0.05). The log-binomial model was used to calculate PR and 95% CI. The prevalence of binge drinking was 23.1%. The average age of onset of alcohol consumption was 10,8 years. Binge drinking was more prevalent among adolescents whose best friend [OR = 4.72 (95% CI 2.78-8.03)] and brother [PR = 1.46 (95% CI 1.10-1.92)] drink alcohol. Religiosity [PR = 0.40 (95% CI 0.27-0.62)] appeared as a possible protective factor. Our findings indicate that peer effects are important determinants of drinking and could be utilized as a potential target for interventions to reduce alcohol consumption rates.
Resumo A adolescência é um período vulnerável da tendência em assumir riscos, incluindo consumo excessivo de álcool. Avaliou-se a prevalência de “binge drinking” e sua associação com o consumo de bebidas alcoólicas pelo melhor amigo, fatores familiares, condição socioeconômica e religiosidade. Foi conduzido um censo de 633 alunos de escolas públicas e privadas em Diamantina-MG. Os participantes preencheram o Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-C (AUDIT-C) e um questionário sobre o consumo de álcool por familiares e amigos. Questionários com perguntas sobre condições socioeconômicas foram enviados aos pais/responsáveis. Foram realizadas análises descritivas e bivariadas (p < 0,05). O modelo log-binomial foi usado para calcular RP e 95% IC. A prevalência de consumo excessivo de álcool foi de 23,1%. A idade média de início do consumo de álcool foi de 10,8 anos. O “binge drinking” foi mais prevalente entre adolescentes cujo melhor amigo [OR = 4,72 (95% IC 2,78-8,03)] e irmão [RP = 01.46 (IC 95% 1,10-1,92)] consumiam álcool. A religiosidade [RP = 0,40 (IC 95% 0,27-0,62)] apareceu como um possível fator de proteção. Os efeitos de pares são importantes determinantes do consumo de álcool e poderiam ser utilizados como um alvo potencial em intervenções para reduzir as taxas deste.
Abstract The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and discriminate the associated factors between enamel fractures and other trauma/trauma sequelae in 8 to 10-year-old Brazilian schoolchildren. A representative sample of 1,201 children from public and private schools were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Questionnaires about sociodemographic characteristics were answered by parents. The outcome variable (traumatic dental injury, TDI) was multi-categorized. Independent individual variables were sex, age, number of residents in household, parents/caregivers’ level of education, family income, dental caries, and overjet. Type of school was considered an independent contextual variable. Multilevel analysis, bivariate, and multivariate multinomial logistic regression models were performed. The prevalence of TDI was 14.0% (2.8% with other trauma/trauma sequelae). The multilevel analysis revealed no significant difference between the type of school and TDI. The multinomial logistic regression showed that boys (OR = 2.3; 95%CI: 1.1–4.8), older children (OR = 1.8; 95%CI: 1.1–3.0) and individuals with an overjet > 3 mm (OR = 2.5; 95%CI: 1.0–6.2) were more likely to present other trauma/trauma sequelae. Enamel fracture was not significantly associated with any variables. The prevalence of TDI in 8 to 10-year-old schoolchildren was 14% but only 2.8% of other trauma/trauma sequelae. Differences regarding the associated factors of TDI involving enamel fracture or other trauma/trauma sequelae were detected, suggesting that the different TDI classification cannot be evaluated as a single category.
Abstract Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by inappropriate levels of hyperactivity, impulsivity, and/or inattention. Individuals with ADHD may present limitations with regard to executive functions and performing activities that involve planning and/or attention/concentration. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between dental caries and signs of ADHD in a representative sample of schoolchildren. A representative sample of 851 schoolchildren aged seven to 12 years was randomly selected from public and private schools. Data acquisition involved a clinical dental examination for cavitated permanent and deciduous teeth using the DMFT/dmft indices. Neuropsychological evaluations, including the assessment of intelligence (Raven’s Colored Progressive Matrix Test) and executive functions (Corsi Tapping Blocks tests and Digit Span test) were also performed. Parents/caregivers and teachers answered the SNAP-IV Questionnaire for the investigation of signs of inattention and hyperactivity in the family and school environment. Parents/caregivers also answered questionnaires addressing socioeconomic and socio-demographic characteristics. Descriptive analysis of the variables and Poisson regression with robust variance were performed. Parental reports of signs of inattention (PR: 1.28; p < 0.05) and hyperactivity (PR: 1.15; p < 0.05) were associated with a greater occurrence of caries. A better performance on the backward order of the Corsi Tapping Blocks tests (PR: 0.94; p < 0.05) and higher level of mother’s schooling were associated with a lower frequency of caries. A better performance on executive function tasks was a protective factor against dental caries, whereas children considered inattentive and/or hyperactive by their parents had a higher prevalence rate of dental caries.
The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to examine illicit drug use and associations with socioeconomic factors as well as peer group influence among Brazilian adolescents aged 15 to 19 years. Two-stage cluster sampling was adopted, involving the random selection of public and private schools from the nine administrative districts of a Brazilian state capital and the random selection of classrooms at each school. Illicit drug use was the outcome and was measured through the question: “Have you ever used any illicit drugs (marijuana, inhalants, hypnotics, cocaine/crack, hallucinogens, amphetamines and opioids) in your life?”. The most important group of friends was ranked as school, family, religious activities and sports/culture. The area-based Health Vulnerability Index (HVI) was used to assess socioeconomic status. Data from 891 adolescents were analyzed using the chi-squared test and logistic regression. The overall rate of illicit drug use was 15.2%. Gender heterogeneity within groups (OR = 3.14; 95%CI: 1.63-6.06), religion-based friendships (OR = 0.36; 95%CI: 0.17-0.75) and sports/culture-based friendships (OR = 0.44; 95%CI: 0.22-0.87) remained significantly associated with illicit drug use. Adolescents who lived in less vulnerable areas had higher chance of drug use in comparison with those living in more vulnerable areas. Religion-based and sports/culture-based friendships seem to demonstrate a protective effect against lifetime illicit drug use. Gender heterogeneity within groups and residing in a less vulnerable area increased the chances of adolescents reporting illicit drug use.
El objetivo del presente estudio transversal fue examinar el consumo de drogas ilícitas, y su asociación con factores socioeconómicos, así como con la influencia del grupo entre adolescentes brasileños de 15 a 19 años de edad. Se adoptó una muestra del grupo en dos etapas, considerando una selección aleatoria de escuelas públicas y privadas de nueve distritos administrativos de una capital de estado brasileña y una selección aleatoria de clases en cada escuela. El consumo ilícito era el resultado que se midió a través de la pregunta: “¿Has consumido alguna vez drogas legales (marihuana, inhalantes, hipnóticos, cocaína/crack, alucinógenos, anfetaminas y opioides) en tu vida?” El grupo más importante de factores protectores fue categorizado como: escuela, familia, religioso y deportes/cultura. El área, basada en el Índice de Vulnerabilidad de la Salud (IVS), se usó para evaluar el estatus socioeconómico. Se analizaron los datos de 891 adolescentes, usando el test chi-cuadrado test y regresión logística. El porcentaje global de consumo de drogas ilícitas fue de un 15.2%. La heterogeneidad de género en los grupos (OR = 3.14; 95%CI: 1.63-6.06), amistad basada en la religión (OR = 0.36; 95%CI: 0.17-0.75) y amistades basadas en deporte/cultura (OR = 0.44; 95%CI: 0.22-0.87) quedaron significativamente asociadas con el consumo de drogas ilícitas. Los adolescentes que vivían en áreas menos vulnerables tenían una oportunidad más alta de consumo de drogas, en comparación con aquellos que vivían en áreas más vulnerables. Las amistadas basadas en la religión y deporte/cultura parece que demuestran ser un factor protector contra el consumo de drogas a lo largo de la vida. La heterogeneidad de género en los grupos y residir en áreas menos vulnerables incrementó la oportunidad en el consumo de ilícito de drogas.
O estudo teve como objetivo examinar o uso de drogas ilícitas e as associações com fatores socioeconômicos e influência do grupo de pares entre adolescentes brasileiros de 15 a 19 anos de idade. Foi adotada uma amostra de clusters em dois estágios, com a seleção aleatória de escolas públicas e privadas entre os nove distritos administrativos de uma capital de estado, e a seleção aleatória de turmas em cada escola. A variável de desfecho foi o uso de drogas ilícitas, medido pela seguinte pergunta: “Você já usou drogas ilícitas (maconha, inalantes, hipnóticos, cocaína/crack, alucinógenos, anfetaminas e/ou opióides) alguma vez na vida?”. Os grupos de pares foram classificados como: escola, família, atividades religiosas e esportes/cultura. O nível socioeconômico foi avaliado com o Índice de Vulnerabilidade em Saúde (IVS) baseado em área. Foram analisados os dados de 91 adolescentes com o teste do qui-quadrado e regressão logística. A proporção global de uso de drogas ilícitas foi 15,2%. A heterogeneidade por gênero dentro de grupos (OR = 3,14; IC95%: 1,63-6,06), amizades baseadas em religião (OR = 0,36; IC95%: 0,17-0,75) e amizades baseadas em esportes/cultura (OR = 0,44; IC95%: 0,22-0,87) permaneceram associadas significativamente com o uso de drogas ilícitas. Os adolescentes que residiam em áreas menos vulneráveis mostraram maior probabilidade de uso de drogas ilícitas, quando comparados aos jovens em áreas mais vulneráveis. As amizades baseadas em religião e esportes/cultura parecem ter um efeito protetor contra o uso de drogas ilícitas. A heterogeneidade de gênero dentro de grupos e a residência em áreas menos vulneráveis aumentaram as chances de uso de drogas ilícitas por adolescentes.
Abstract In the last decades, several instruments have been used to evaluate the impact of oral health problems on the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of individuals. However, some instruments lack thorough methodological validation or present conceptual differences that hinder comparisons with instruments. Thus, it can be difficult to clinicians and researchers to select a questionnaire that accurately reflect what are really meaningful to individuals. This short communication aimed to discuss the importance of use an appropriate checklist to select an instrument with a good methodological quality. The COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist was developed to provide tools for evidence-based instrument selection. The COSMIN checklist comprises ten boxes that evaluate whether a study meets the standard for good methodological quality and two additional boxes to meet studies that use the Item Response Theory method and general requirements for results generalization, resulting in four steps to be followed. In this way, it is required at least some expertise in psychometrics or clinimetrics to a wide-ranging use of this checklist. The COSMIN applications include its use to ensure the standardization of cross-cultural adaptations and safer comparisons between measurement studies and evaluation of methodological quality of systematic reviews of measurement properties. Also, it can be used by students when training about measurement properties and by editors and reviewers when revising manuscripts on this topic. The popularization of COSMIN checklist is therefore necessary to improve the selection and evaluation of health measurement instruments.
Resumo Nas últimas décadas, vários instrumentos tem sido utilizados para avaliar o impacto dos problemas de saúde bucal na qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde bucal (OHRQoL) dos indivíduos. No entanto, alguns instrumentos não possuem validação metodológica completa ou apresentam diferenças conceituais que dificultam as comparações com instrumentos. Assim, pode ser difícil para clínicos e pesquisadores selecionar um questionário que reflita com precisão o que é realmente significativo para os indivíduos. Esta comunicação rápida teve como objetivo discutir a importância de usar um checklist apropriado para selecionar um instrumento com boa qualidade metodológica. O COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist foi desenvolvido para fornecer ferramentas para a seleção de instrumentos baseados em evidências. O COSMIN checklist compreende dez quadros que avaliam se um estudo atende o padrão para uma boa qualidade metodológica e dois quadros adicionais para atender a estudos que usam o método Item Response Theory e os requisitos gerais para a generalização de resultados, resultando em quatro etapas a serem seguidas. Desta forma, é necessário pelo menos alguma experiência em psicometria ou clinimetria para um amplo uso deste checklist. As aplicações do COSMIN incluem seu uso para garantir a padronização de adaptações transculturais e comparações mais seguras entre estudos de mensuração e avaliação de qualidade metodológica de revisões sistemáticas de propriedades de mensuração. Além disso, ele pode ser usado por estudantes ao treinar sobre propriedades de mensuração e por editores e revisores ao revisar manuscritos sobre este tópico. A divulgação do COSMIN checklist é, portanto, necessária para melhorar a seleção e avaliação dos instrumentos de medição da saúde.
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Children with sickle cell disease may have their quality of life affected by oral alterations. However, there is still little data on oral health-related quality of life in these children. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of sickle cell disease, socioeconomic characteristics, and oral conditions on oral health-related quality of life of children and teens. METHOD: One hundred and six children and teens with sickle cell disease were compared to a similar sample of 385 healthy peers. Data were collected through oral examinations, interviews to assess quality of life (Child Perceptions Questionnaire for children aged 8-10 and 11-14) and questionnaires containing questions on socioeconomic status. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences in the total scores of the Child Perceptions Questionnaires or domain scores comparing sickle cell disease patients to control subjects. When sub-scales were compared, oral symptoms and functional limitations had a greater negative impact on the quality of life of adolescents with sickle cell disease (p-value <0.001 and p-value <0.01, respectively) when compared to healthy controls. The only statistically significant determinants of negative impact on oral health-related quality of life in the overall sample was home overcrowding (more than two people/room) in the younger children's group, and dental malocclusion among teens. CONCLUSION: There was no significant difference in the negative impact on the oral health-related quality of life between the group with sickle cell disease and the control group. Of the oral alterations, there was a significant difference in the oral health-related quality of life between adolescents with sickle cell disease and controls only in relation to malocclusion. Among the socioeconomic characteristics, only overcrowding was significantly associated with a negative impact on oral health-related quality of life.
Abstract The objectives of this prospective, longitudinal, population-based study were to estimate the incidence of dental caries in the primary dentition, identify risk factors and determine the proportion of children receiving dental treatment, through a two-year follow up. The first dental exam was conducted with 381 children aged one to five years, at health centers during immunization campaigns; 184 of them had dental caries and 197 had no caries experience. The second exam was carried out two years later at a nursery or at home with the same individuals who participated in the first exam. The diagnosis of dental caries was performed using the dmft criteria. Parents were interviewed regarding socioeconomic indicators. Descriptive, bivariate and adjusted Poisson regression analyses were performed. Among the 381 children, 234 were reexamined after two years (non-exposed: 139; exposed: 95). The overall incidence of dental caries was 46.6%. The greatest incidence of dental caries was found in the group of children with previous caries experience (61.1%). Among the children without dental caries in the first exam, 36.7% exhibited caries in the second exam. The majority of children (72.6%) received no treatment for carious lesions in the two-year interval between examinations. Children with previous dental caries (RR: 1.52, 95%CI: 1.12–2.05) had a greater risk of developing new lesions, compared with the children without previous dental caries. The incidence of dental caries was high and most of children’s caries were untreated. Previous caries experience is a risk factor for developing new carious lesions in children.
Abstract The aim of the present study was to search for scientific evidence concerning the association between breastfeeding and bottle feeding and risk of malocclusion in mixed and permanent dentitions. An electronic search was performed in eight databases up to February 2015. Additionally, a gray literature search and hand searches of the reference lists of the selected studies were also carried out. There were no restrictions on language or on year of publication. The methodology of the included articles was evaluated using the Newcastle Ottawa scale. Out of the 817 identified citations, six studies fulfilled the eligibility criteria and were included in the systematic review. One study showed that children with mixed and permanent dentitions breastfed for more than 6 months presented greater mean protrusion of mandibular incisors and inclination of maxillary incisors compared with those breastfed for less than 6 months or those who were bottle-fed (p < 0.05). One study revealed that breastfeeding and bruxism were associated with Class II [OR = 3.14 (1.28 - 7.66)] and Class III [OR = 2.78 (1.21 - 6.36)] malocclusion in children with permanent dentition, while another study showed that an increase in breastfeeding duration was associated with a lower risk of malocclusion in children with both mixed and permanent dentitions (p < 0.001). Three studies did not report any significant association. Risk of bias was high in most selected articles. These findings do not support an association between breastfeeding and bottle feeding and the occurrence of malocclusion in mixed and permanent dentitions.
Abstract The aim of this study was to assess the impact of oral conditions of children with sickle cell disease (SCD) on their parents’ quality of life (QoL). A cross-sectional study was performed with parents of outpatients suffering from SCD at a hematology referral center in Belo Horizonte, MG. A qualified dentist performed an intraoral exam. The Family Impact Scale (FIS) was used to assess the parents’ perception of QoL. The parents answered some questions regarding sociodemographic and medical information about their children. The dmft/DMFT score, DAI, gum bleeding and SCD severity were evaluated in terms of their impacts on the overall mean FIS scores and subscale scores. The chance of more frequent impacts was greater in parents of adolescents (OR = 2.04; 95%CI = 1.2, 3.4) than of younger children. Dental caries (dmft/DMFT ≥ 1) had a negative impact on the QoL of parents of younger children and adolescents (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively). Among the parents of younger children, dental caries and SCD severity significantly affected the subscales for parental activities (PA) and parental emotions (PE) (p < 0.01, p < 0.05, respectively). Among parents of adolescents, dental caries (DMFT) and severe malocclusion adversely affected the PE and PA subscales (p < 0.01, p < 0.05, respectively). SCD severity affected the overall FIS score among young children’s parents (p < 0.05). In conclusion, dental caries, age and SCD severity were associated with a negative impact on the QoL of parents of children with SCD
Objectives : To identify the level of access to information regarding how to prevent oral health problems among the elderly, and verify if such levels were higher among members of households registered with the Family Health Strategy Program. Methods : An analytic cross-sectional study was conducted of a probabilistic complex sample of elderly (65-74 years old) members of the population of a large city. The level of access was estimated with adjustment for the design effect, as well as the magnitudes of association. Descriptive, bivariate and logistic regression (OR/CI95%) analysis was performed. Variables related to personal determinants, health services, health-related behavior and health outcomes were considered. Results : Of the 490 participants, 53.4% reported they had access to information about how to prevent oral health problems. This access was higher among elderly persons living in a household registered with the Family Health Strategy Program (2.04/1.14-3.67), and who had at least five years of schooling (2.53/1.67-3.83), regularly used dental services (1.84/1.07-3.17), did not smoke either now or in the past (1.79/1.13-2.82), did not suffer from chronic diseases (2.14/1.34-3.42) and had not suffered social impacts because of their oral health conditions (1.77/1.08-2.91). Conclusion : Most of the elderly persons had access to information about how to prevent oral health problems, with such access being greater among those registered with the Family Health Strategy Program.
Objetivos: Identificar a prevalência do acesso a informações sobre como evitar problemas bucais entre idosos e verificar se esse acesso foi maior entre os residentes em domicílios cadastrados na Estratégia de Saúde da Família (ESF). Método: Estudo transversal analítico conduzido a partir de amostra probabilística complexa por conglomerado de idosos (65-74 anos) de um município de grande porte populacional. Foi estimada a prevalência do acesso com correções pelo efeito de desenho, além das magnitudes das associações, sendo conduzidas análises descritivas, bivariadas e regressão logística (OR/IC95%). Considerou-se variáveis referentes aos determinantes pessoais, serviços de saúde, comportamentos relacionados à saúde e desfechos de saúde. Resultados: Dentre os 490 participantes, 53,4% relataram o acesso a informações sobre como evitar problemas bucais. Esse acesso foi maior entre os idosos que residiam em domicílio cadastrado na ESF (2,04/1,14-3,67), tinham maior escolaridade (2,53/1,67-3,83), utilizaram os serviços odontológicos por rotina (1,84/1,07-3,17), não relataram hábito tabagista atual ou passado (1,79/1,13-2,82), não possuíam doença crônica (2,14/1,34-3,42) e não tiveram impacto social das suas condições de saúde bucal (1,77/1,08-2,91). Conclusão: Conclui-se que a maioria dos idosos teve acesso a informações sobre como evitar problemas bucais, sendo o acesso maior entre aqueles cadastrados na Estratégia de Saúde da Família.
Abstract Educative actions are an important component of health promotion in Brazil's primary healthcare program, the Family Health Strategy (FHS). The efficacy of these actions is evidenced by compliance with healthy behaviors and in the reduction of rates of mortality and morbidity. The objective of this study was to identify whether access to information regarding the prevention of oral cancer is greater among elders whose residences are registered with the FHS. SPSS® was utilized to obtain estimates that were corrected for sample design, considering the magnitude of the associations between access to such information with personal determinants, the use and cost of healthcare, health-related behaviors and health outcomes. 58.9% of the 492 participating elders reported having access to such information. We verified that there was a greater chance for access among residents of houses registered by the FHS; those with greater per capita income (2.01/1.183.43); non-smokers (2.00/1.16-3.46); those that realized oral self-examination (6.35/3.46-11.64); and those that did not perceive discomfort in the mouth, head or neck (2.06/1.02-4.17). Access was greater among residents of homes registered by the FHS. Personal determinants of health, health-related behaviors and health outcomes are influenced or influence access to information regarding the prevention and management of oral diseases.
Resumo Na promoção de saúde, as ações educativas são prioridade na Estratégia de Saúde da Família (ESF). Evidencia-se a eficácia dessas ações na adesão a comportamentos saudáveis e na redução nas taxas de morbimortalidade por câncer bucal. Objetivou-se identificar se o acesso a informações sobre como prevenir o câncer bucal é maior entre idosos residentes em domicílios cadastrados na ESF. Utilizou-se o SPSS® na obtenção de estimativas corrigidas pelo efeito do desenho amostral, considerando as magnitudes das associações do acesso a tais informações com os determinantes pessoais, uso dos serviços/custos com a saúde, comportamentos relacionados à saúde e desfechos da saúde. Dentre os 492 idosos, 58,9% relataram ter tido acesso a tais informações. Verificaramse maiores chances de acesso entre residentes em domicílios cadastrados na ESF; com maior renda per capita (2,01/1,18-3,43); não tabagistas (2,00/1,16-3,46); que realizaram autoexame bucal (6,35/3,46-11,64); e que não autoperceberam incômodo na boca, cabeça ou pescoço (2,06/1,024,17). O acesso foi maior entre os residentes em domicílios cadastrados na ESF. Determinantes pessoais, comportamentos relacionados à saúde e desfechos de saúde sofrem influência ou influenciam a oferta e o acesso a essas informações.
The purpose of the present study was to identify the factors associated with dental trauma in preschool children. This case-control study was nested in a population-based cross-sectional study involving a random sample of 301 children one to five years of age in the city of Diamantina, Brazil. The case group was made up of children with at least one fractured deciduous tooth, and the control group was made up of children with no deciduous tooth fracture. The two groups were matched for age in a proportion of one control for every case. The dependent variable was “dental trauma,” diagnosed according to the criteria proposed by Andreasen and Andreasen. The independent variables were overjet, measured and considered accentuated when surpassing 3 mm, and lip coverage, classified as adequate or inadequate. Clinical oral examinations were performed by calibrated dentists. The parents provided information on the socioeconomic indicators. Statistical analysis involved the McNemar test and logistic regression. Each group (case and control) was composed of 92 children. In the bivariate analysis, traumatic dental injury (TDI) was associated with overjet > 3 mm (p = 0.001), inadequate lip coverage (p < 0.001), mother's schooling (p = 0.028) and household income (p < 0.001). In the multivariate analysis, only inadequate lip coverage was associated with TDI (OR: 5.35; 95% CI: 1.37-20.85). In conclusion, the case group children had a 5.3 - fold more likely chance of presenting inadequate lip coverage, compared with the control children.
OBJECTIVE: To identify the prevalence and the severity of malocclusions and to analyze factors associated with the need for orthodontic treatment of Brazilian adolescents. METHODS: This exploratory, cross-sectional study was carried out based on secondary data from the national epidemiological survey on oral health in Brazil (2002-2003). Socio-demographic conditions, self-perception, and the existence and degree of malocclusion, using the Dental Aesthetic Index, were evaluated in 16,833 adolescent Brazilians selected by probabilistic sample by conglomerates. The dependent variable need orthodontic treatment was estimated from the severity of malocclusion. The magnitude and direction of the association in bivariate and multivariate analyzes from a Robust Poisson regression was estimated. RESULTS: The majority of the adolescents needed orthodontic treatment (53.2%). In the multivariate analysis, the prevalence of the need for orthodontic treatment was larger among females, non-whites, those that perceived a need for treatment, and those that perceived their appearance as normal, bad, or very bad. The need for orthodontic treatment was smaller among those that lived in the Northeast and Central West macro-regions compared to those living in Southeast Brazil and it was also smaller among those that perceived their chewing to be normal or their oral health to be bad or very bad. CONCLUSIONS: There was a high prevalence of orthodontic treatment need among adolescents in Brazil and this need was associated with demographic and subjective issues. The high prevalence of orthodontic needs in adolescents is a challenge to the goals of Brazil's universal public health system.
OBJETIVO: Identificar a prevalência e a gravidade das más oclusões e fatores associados com a necessidade de tratamento ortodôntico dos adolescentes brasileiros. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal feito com base nos dados da pesquisa epidemiológica nacional em saúde bucal no Brasil (2002-2003). Condições sociodemográficas, autopercepção, existência e nível de gravidade da má oclusão, com o uso do Índice de Estética Dentária, foram avaliados em 16.833 adolescentes brasileiros selecionados por amostra probabilística por conglomerados. A variável dependente necessidade de tratamento ortodôntico foi estimada a partir da gravidade da má oclusão. A magnitude e a direção das associações nas análises bivariada e multivariada foram estimadas pela regressão de Poisson. RESULTADOS: A maioria dos adolescentes apresentou necessidade de tratamento ortodôntico (53,2%). Na análise multivariada, a prevalência da necessidade de tratamento ortodôntico foi maior entre as mulheres, os não brancos, aqueles que autopercebiam a necessidade de tratamento e aqueles que autopercebiam sua aparência como normal, ruim ou muito ruim. A necessidade de tratamento ortodôntico foi menor entre aqueles que viviam nas regiões Nordeste e Centro-Oeste em comparação com aqueles da Sudeste e também menor entre aqueles que autopercebiam sua mastigação como normal e sua saúde bucal como ruim ou muito ruim. CONCLUSÕES: O estudo identificou uma prevalência elevada da necessidade de tratamento ortodôntico em adolescentes no Brasil, associada com questões demográficas e subjetivas de saúde bucal. A alta prevalência de necessidades ortodônticas entre adolescentes é um desafio para o Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) do Brasil.