ABSTRACT Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer and the fifth leading cause of cancer deaths. In Brazil, it is likewise the second most common cancer among men, second only to non-melanoma skin cancers. The aim of this consensus is to align different opinions and interpretations of the medical literature in a practical and patient-oriented approach. The first Brazilian Consensus on the Treatment of Advanced Prostate Cancer was published in 2017, with the goal of reducing the heterogeneity of therapeutic conduct in Brazilian patients with metastatic prostate cancer. We acknowledge that in Brazil the incorporation of different technologies is a big challenge, especially in the Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS), which allows for the disparity in the options available to patients treated in different institutions. In order to update the recommendations and to make them objective and easily accessible, once more a panel of specialists was formed in order to discuss and elaborate a new Brazilian Consensus on Advanced Prostate Cancer. This Consensus was written through a joint initiative of the Brazilian Society of Clinical Oncology (SBOC) and the Brazilian Society of Urology (SBU) to support the clinical decisions of physicians and other health professionals involved in the care of patients with prostate cancer.
OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence and interrelationship between lower urinary tract symptoms and sexual dysfunction in men with multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, we evaluated 41 men (mean age 41.1±9.9 years) with MS from February 2011 to March 2013, who were invited to participate irrespective of the presence of lower urinary tract symptoms or sexual dysfunction. Neurological impairment was assessed with the Expanded Disability Status Scale; lower urinary tract symptoms were evaluated with the International Continence Society male short-form questionnaire, and sexual dysfunction was evaluated with the International Index of Erectile Function. All patients underwent transabdominal urinary tract sonography and urine culture. RESULTS: The mean disease duration was 10.5±7.3 years. Neurological evaluation showed a median Expanded Disability Status Scale score of 3 [2-6]. The median International Continence Society male short-form questionnaire score was 17 [10-25]. The median International Index of Erectile Function score was 29 [15-46]. Twenty-nine patients (74.4%) had sexual dysfunction as defined by an International Index of Erectile Function score <45. Voiding dysfunction and sexual dysfunction increased with the degree of neurological impairment (r=0.02 [0.02 to 0.36] p=0.03 and r=-0.41 [-0.65 to -0.11] p=0.008, respectively). Lower urinary tract symptoms and sexual dysfunction also displayed a significant correlation (r=-0.31 [-0.56 to -0.01] p=0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Most male patients with MS have lower urinary tract symptoms and sexual dysfunction. The severity of the neurological disease is a predictive factor for the occurrence of voiding and sexual dysfunctions.
ABSTRACT Introduction Pelvic Schwannoma is an extremely rare event. Laparoscopic approach for radical resection on pelvic region already has been described in the literature. However, with better image quality provided by optic in the laparoscopy we can assure an improvement in this kind of approach for tumor resection. Objective Our goal is to describe and evaluate the results of one laparoscopic resection of presacral and obturator fossa tumor. Materials and Methods We present a case of a 60-year-old man with progressive congestion in the right inferior member and CT scan revealing a mass with miscellaneous content located behind of the right iliac vessels and right obturator nerve. Exploratory transperitoneal laparoscopy was indicated. During laparoscopy it was possible to see the mass between the spermatic cord and external iliac artery. We made the identification and preservation of iliac vessels and obturator nerve. Resection of the tumor was performed carefully, allowing the safe removal of the specimen with complete preservation of the iliac vessels and obturator nerve. Results Mean operative time of 150 minutes. No perioperative complications occurred. Two days of hospital stay. Posterior histopathological exam confirmed that the mass was a Schwannoma. Conclusion The maximization of the image in the laparoscopic surgery offers dexterity and capacity of dissection required for complex mass dissection on pelvic region.
ABSTRACT Introduction: Prostate cancer is one of the tumors with higher incidence and mortality among men in the World. Epidemiological data are influenced by life expectancy of population, available diagnostic methods, correct collection of data and quality of health services. Screening of the disease is not standardized around the World. Up till now there is no consensus about the risks versus benefits of early detection. There are still missing data about this pathology in Latin America. Objective: to revise current epidemiologic situation and early diagnosis policies of prostate cancer in Brazil and Latin America. Materials and Methods: Medline, Cochrane Library and SciELO databases were reviewed on the subject of epidemiology and screening of prostate cancer. Screening research was performed in websites on national public health organizations and Latin America. Screening recommendations were obtained from those governmental organizations and from Latin American urological societies and compared to the most prominent regulatory agencies and societies of specialists and generalists from around the World. Results: Brazil and Latin America have a special position in relation to incidence and mortality of prostate cancer. In Brazil, it occupies the first position regarding incidence of cancer in men and the second cause of mortality. Central America has the highest rate of mortality of the continent with lower incidence/mortality ratios. Screening recommendations are very distinct, mainly among regulatory organs and urological societies. Conclusion: prostate cancer epidemiology is an important health public topic. Data collection related to incidence and mortality is still precarious, especially in less developed countries. It is necessary to follow-up long term screening studies results in order to conclude its benefits.
Abstract Introduction: Retzus-sparing robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy(RARP) is a newly approach that preserve the Retzus structures and provide better recovery of continence and erectile function. In Brazil, this approach has not yet been previously reported. Objective: Our goal is to describe Step-by-Step the Retzus-sparing RARP surgical technique and report our first Brazilian experience. Methods: We present a case of a 60-year-old white man with low risk prostate cancer. Surgical materials were four arms Da Vinci robotic platform system, six transperitoneal portals, two prolene wires and Polymer Clips. This surgical technique was step-by-step described according to Galfano et al. One additional step was added as a modification of Galfano et al. Primary technique description: The closure of the Denovellier fascia. Results: We have operated one patient with this technique. The operative time was 180minutes, console time was135 min, the blood loss was 150ml, none perioperative or postoperative complications was found, hospital stay of 01 day. The anatomopathological classification revealed a pT2aN0M0 specimen with free surgical margins. The patient achieved continence immediately after bladder stent retrieval. Full erection reported after 30 days of surgery. Conclusion: Retzus-sparing RARP approach is feasible and reproducible. However, further comparative studies are necessary to demonstrate potential benefits in continence and sexual outcomes over the standard approaches.
ABSTRACT Introduction: In special situations such as malrotated or ectopic kidneys and UPJ stenosis treatment of renal lithiasis can be challenging. In these rare cases laparoscopy can be indicated. Objective: Describe the Laparoscopic-assisted rigid nephroscopy performed via transpyelic approach and report the feasibility. Patients and methods: We present two cases of caliceal lithiasis. The first is a patient that ESWL and previous percutaneous lithotripsy have failed, with pelvic kidney where laparoscopic dissection of renal pelvis was carried out followed by nephroscopy utilizing the 30 Fr rigid nephroscope to remove the calculus. Ideal angle between the major axis of renal pelvis and the rigid nephroscope to allow success with this technique was 60-90 grades. In the second case, the kidney had a dilated infundibulum. Results: The operative time was 180 minutes for both procedures. No significant blood loss or perioperative complications occurred. The bladder catheter was removed in the postoperative day 1 and Penrose drain on day 2 when patients were discharged. The convalescence was completed after 3 weeks. Patients were stone free without symptons in one year of follow-up. Conclusions: Laparoscopic-assisted rigid nephroscopy performed via tranpyelic approach can be done safely with proper patient selection and adherence to standard laparoscopic surgical principles. This approach is an alternative in cases where flexible endoscope is not available and when standard procedure is unlikely to produce a stone-free status.
ABSTRACT Objective To compare the results of two slings, Argus T® and Advance®, for the treatment of postprostatectomy urinary incontinence (PPUI). Material and Methods: From December 2010 to December 2011, 22 patients with PPUI were randomized as follows: 11 (mean age 62.09(±5.30)) underwent treatment with Advance® and 11 (mean age 62.55(±8.54)) with Argus T®. All patients were evaluated preoperatively with urodynamic testing, quality of life questionnaire (ICIQ-SF), voiding diary and 24-hour pad test. Exclusion criteria were: neurological diseases, severe detrusor overactivity and urethral stenosis. Evaluation was performed at 6, 12 and 18 months after the surgery. After implantation of the Argus T® sling, patients who experienced urine leakage equal to or greater than the initial volume underwent adjustment of the sling tension. Results were statistically analyzed using the Fisher’s test, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Friedman’s non-parametric test or the Mann-Whitney test. Results Significant improvement of the 24-hour pad test was observed with the Argus T® sling (p=0.038) , With regard to the other parameters, there was no significant difference between the two groups. Removal of the Argus T® device due to perineal pain was performed in one patient (9%). Despite non uniform results, both devices were considered useful to improve quality of life (ICIQ-SF): Argus T® (p=0.018) and Advance® (p=0.017). Conclusions Better results were observed in the 24h pad test and in levels of satisfaction with the Argus T® device. Both slings contributed to improve quality of life (ICIQ-SF), with acceptable side effects.
ABSTRACT Purpose: This study compared the suprapubic (SP) versus retropubic (RP) prostatectomy for the treatment of large prostates and evaluated perioperative surgical morbidity and improvement of urinary symptoms. Materials and Methods: In this single centre, prospective, randomised study, 65 consecutive patients with LUTS and surgical indication with prostate volume greater than 75g underwent open prostatectomy to compare the RP (32 patients) versus SP (33 patients) technique. Results: The SP group exhibited a higher incidence of complications (p=0.002). Regarding voiding pattern analysis (IPSS and flowmetry), both were significantly effective compared to pre-treatment baseline. The RP group parameters were significantly better, with higher peak urinary flow (SP: 16.77 versus RP: 23.03mL/s, p=0.008) and a trend of lower IPSS score (SP: 6.67 versus RP 4.14, p=0.06). In a subgroup evaluation of patients with prostate volumes larger than 100g, blood loss was lower in those undergoing SP prostatectomy (p=0.003). Patients with prostates smaller than 100g in the SP group exhibited a higher incidence of low grade late complications (p=0.004). Conclusions: The SP technique was related to a higher incidence of minor complications in the late postoperative period. High volume prostates were associated with increased bleeding when the RP technique was utilized. The RP prostatectomy was associated with higher peak urinary flow and a trend of a lower IPSS Score.
ABSTRACT Purpose: Vesicorectal fistula is one of the most devastating postoperative complications after radical prostatectomy. Definitive treatment is difficult due to morbidity and recurrence. Despite many options, there is not an unanimous accepted approach. This article aimed to report a new minimally invasive approach as an option to reconstructive surgery. Materials and Methods: We report on Transanal Minimally Invasive Surgery (TAMIS) with miniLap devices for instrumentation in a 65 year old patient presenting with vesicorectal fistula after radical prostatectomy. We used Alexis® device for transanal access and 3, 5 and 11 mm triangulated ports for the procedure. The surgical steps were as follows: cystoscopy and implant of guide wire through fistula; patient at jack-knife position; transanal access; Identification of the fistula; dissection; vesical wall closure; injection of fibrin glue in defect; rectal wall closure. Results: The operative time was 240 minutes, with 120 minutes for reconstruction. No perioperative complications or conversion were observed. Hospital stay was two days and catheters were removed at four weeks. No recurrence was observed. Conclusions: This approach has low morbidity and is feasible. The main difficulties consisted in maintaining luminal dilation, instrumental manipulation and suturing.
Giant prostatic hyperplasia is a rare condition characterized by very high volume benign prostatic enlargement (>500g). Few cases have been reported so far and most of them are associated with severe lower urinary symptoms. We report the first case of asymptomatic giant prostatic hyperplasia in an elderly man who had a 720g prostate adenoma, sudden gross hematuria and hypovolemic shock. The patient was successfully treated with open transvesical prostatectomy and had an uneventful postoperative recovery.
A hiperplasia prostática gigante é uma condição rara caracterizada por aumento benigno prostático significativo, com volume maior que 500g. Existem poucos casos relatados e, em sua maioria deles está associada a sintomas graves do trato urinário inferior. Relatamos aqui o primeiro caso de hiperplasia prostática benigna assintomática em paciente idoso com próstata de 720g, hematúria macroscópica de início súbito e choque hipovolêmico. O paciente foi submetido com sucesso à prostatectomia suprapúbica, sem intercorrências no intra e pós-operatório.
ABSTRACTObjectives:To evaluate the differences of peri-operatory and oncological outcomes between Laparoscopic Radical Cystectomy and Open Radical Cystectomy in our center.Materials and Methods:Overall, 50 patients were included in this non randomized match-pair analysis: 25 patients who had undergone Laparoscopic Radical Cystectomy for invasive bladder cancer (Group-1) and 25 patients with similar characteristics who had undergone Open Radical Cystectomy (Group-2). The patients were operated from January 2005 to December 2012 in a single Institution.Results:Mean operative time for groups 1 and 2 were 350 and 280 minutes (p=0.03) respectively. Mean blood loss was 330 mL for group 1 and 580 mL for group 2 (p=0.04). Intraoperative transfusion rate was 0% and 36% for groups 1 and 2 respectively (p=0.005). Perioperative complication rate was similar between groups. Mean time to oral intake was 2 days for group 1 and 3 days for group 2 (p=0.08). Median hospital stay was 7 days for group 1 and 13 for group 2 (p=0.04). There were no differences in positive surgical margins and overall survival, between groups.Conclusions:In a reference center with pelvic laparoscopic expertise, Laparoscopic Radical Cystectomy may be considered a safe procedure with similar complication rate of Open Radical Cystectomy. Laparoscopic Radical Cystectomy is more time consuming, with reduced bleeding and transfusion rate. Hospital stay seems to be shorter. Oncologically no difference was observed in our mid-term follow-up.
Objective To determine the efficacy of stress urinary incontinence treatments adding pelvic floor muscle training to vaginal electrical stimulation.Methods Forty-eight women with stress urinary incontinence were randomized into 2 groups: 24 underwent isolated vaginal electrical stimulation, and 24 vaginal electrical stimulation plus pelvic floor muscle training. History, physical examination, voiding diary, perineum strength test, and urodynamic study were assessed. Comparisons were made for adherence to treatment, muscle strength improvement, urinary symptoms, and degree of satisfaction immediately, 12 and 96 months after treatment.Results Patients’ degree of satisfaction on vaginal electrical stimulation, and on vaginal electrical stimulation plus pelvic floor muscle training immediately, 12 and 96 months post treatment, were, respectively: 88.2%versus 88.9% 64.7% versus 61.1% and 42.9% versus 28.6% (p>0.05).Conclusion Vaginal electrical stimulation associated to pelvic floor muscle training did not show better results than vaginal electrical stimulation alone.
Objetivo Determinar a eficácia da eletroestimulação vaginal combinada com treinamento muscular do assoalho pélvico para o tratamento da incontinência urinária de esforço.Métodos Um total de 48 mulheres com incontinência urinária de esforço foi randomizado em 2 grupos, sendo 24 submetidas a eletroestimulação vaginal isolada e 24 a eletroestimulação vaginal e treinamento muscular do assoalho pélvico. Foram avaliados anamnese, exame físico, diário miccional, força perineal e urodinâmica. Compararam-se a adesão ao tratamento, a melhora da força muscular perineal e dos sintomas urinários, e o grau de satisfação imediatamente, 12 e 96 meses após o tratamento.Resultados O grau de satisfação das pacientes no grupo da eletroestimulação isolada e do segundo grupo, imediatamente, com 12 e com 96 meses foi, respectivamente, 88,2% versus 88,9% 64,7% versus 61,1% e 42,9% versus 28,6% (p>0,05).Conclusão A eletroestimulação vaginal associada ao treinamento muscular do assoalho pélvico não foi mais eficaz do que a eletroestimulação isolada.
Introduction Vesicovaginal fistula is a rare disease with great impact for the patients. Laparoscopic repair can be an interesting option in selected cases with goods results but few experience is reported.Objectives Detailed demonstration of our laparoscopic vesicovaginal fistula repair technique. Initial results for ten patients are provided Methods: We treated all cases by the same technique. The surgical steps were: Patient positioning in Lloyd-Davis; Cystoscopy and implant of guide wire on fistula and ureteral catheters (that was removed after procedure); Transperitoneal access and 4 or 5 ports in V or W shape; Opening the bladder wall; Dissection between bladder and vagina for tension free repair; Fistula resection; Vagina repair with Vicryl 3-0; Bladder repair with Vicryl 3-0; Peritoneum/omentum interposition; Positioning 20 Fr urethral catheter.Results Mean age was 50 years. Mean number of fistulas was 1,2. The most common etiology was gynecologic surgery (7). Mean operative time was 2,5 (1,8-3,2) hours. Mean blood loss was 150 (100-200)mL. Complication rate was 10% (one case of urinary infection treated conservatively). Mean hospital stay was 1,2 (1-2) days. Mean return to normal and activities was 20 (15-30) days. For nine patients mean sexual intercourse time was 3 (1-6) months. Success rate after 1 year was 90% (one case of recurrence in patient with previous radiotherapy). Mean follow-up was 36 (12-60) months.Conclusions Laparoscopic repair is feasible, reproducible and present all advantages of minimally invasive surgical procedure. Long term results are similar to conventional open approaches.