ABSTRACT Banana (Musa spp.) is a crop with outstanding economic and social expression throughout the world. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of different mulches types in growth production and postharvest of banana ‘BRS Platina’ not irrigated. The experiment was conducted in the farm of the Federal University of Lavras (UFLA). Micropropagated banana plants of the cultivar BRS were planted in the field with a spacing of 2.5 × 3.0 m (1333 plants ·ha-1), without irrigation. About 20 days after planting, different mulches were installed: black polyethylene films, double-sided polyethylene films (white and black), organic mulch (from the own crop) and control (bare soil). The experimental was set up in a randomized block design with four treatments, six blocks and six plants per treatment, totaling 144 plants. Among the six plants used in each treatment, two constituted the border, therefore four plants were evaluated. The analysis performed in the first and second crop were: growth analysis, postharvest quality, production and productivity. Both organic and inorganic (plastic film) mulch provide greater growth and yield of banana ‘BRS Platina’ not irrigated, in two years of production and can be used in the cultivation of this crop.
Abstract A new juice market, consisting of mixtures of fruits, is expanding in the beverage segment, in order to increase even more the nutritional and sensory characteristics. In addition, in the preparation of juices, the option exists to replace water with coconut water. The aim of this study was to develop and optimize mixed juices based on coconut water and berries (strawberry, blackberry, and red raspberry), through the mixture design, desirability function, and response surface methodology. Mixed juices were evaluated by rheological, physical, physicochemical, sensory, and nutritional characteristics. The treatments produced with strawberry (50% or 100%) were preferred among the tasters, and the juices elaborated using blackberry contributed to higher viscosity, antioxidant activity, phenolic compounds, and total anthocyanins. According to optimization, the mixed juices should contain 50-60% strawberry, 40% blackberry, and 0-10% raspberry. Thus, the mixed juices produced from these fruits have better characteristics than the juice of only one fruit type.
Abstract Blackberry is a small fruit with several properties beneficial to human health and its cultivation is an alternative for small producers due to its fast and high financial return. Studying the growth of fruits over time is extremely important to understand their development, helping in the most appropriate crop management, avoiding post-harvest losses, which is one of the aggravating factors of blackberry cultivation, being a short shelf life fruit. Thus, growth curves are highlighted in this type of study and modeling through statistical models helps understanding how such growth occurs. Data from this study were obtained from an experiment conducted at the Federal University of Lavras in 2015. The aim of this study was to adjust nonlinear, double Logistic and double Gompertz models to describe the diameter growth of four blackberry cultivars (‘Brazos’, ‘Choctaw’, ‘Guarani’ and ‘Tupy’). Estimations of parameters were obtained using the least squares method and the Gauss-Newton algorithm, with the “nls” and “glns” functions of the R statistical software. The comparison of adjustments was made by the Akaike information criterion (AICc), residual standard deviation (RSD) and adjusted determination coefficient (R2 aj). The models satisfactorily described data, choosing the Logistic double model for ‘Brazos’ and ‘Guarani’ cultivars and the double Gompertz model for ‘Tupy’ and ‘Choctaw’ cultivars.
Resumo A amora-preta é um pequeno fruto com várias propriedades benéficas à saúde humana, e seu cultivo é uma alternativa para os pequenos produtores. Estudar o crescimento de frutos, ao longo do tempo, é extremamente importante para entender seu desenvolvimento, auxiliando no manejo mais adequado da cultura, evitando, por exemplo, perda após a colheita, que é um dos fatores agravantes da amora-preta, por ser um fruto de curto período de prateleira. Sendo assim, as curvas de crescimento ganham destaque, nesse tipo de estudo, e a modelagem, por meio de modelos estatísticos, ajuda a entender como tal crescimento acontece. Conduziu-se este trabalho com o objetivo de ajustar modelos não lineares, duplo Logístico e duplo Gompertz, para descrever o crescimento do diâmetro de quatro cultivares da amora-preta (Brazos, Choctaw, Guarani e Tupy). As estimativas dos parâmetros foram obtidas por meio do método de mínimos quadrados, utilizando o algoritmo de Gauss-Newton, por meio do software R. A comparação dos ajustes foi feitas pelo critério de informação Akaike (AICc), desvio padrão residual (DPR) e coeficiente de determinação ajustado (R2 aj). Os modelos descreveram de forma satisfatória os dados, sendo escolhido o modelo duplo Logístico para as cultivares Brazos e Guarani, e o duplo Gompertz para as cultivares Tupy e Choctaw.
ABSTRACT In the tropics, water erosion is one of the most important factors leading to the degradation and deterioration of agricultural land. Olive orchards have a low canopy coverage, especially during the first years after planting, due to the low density of olive trees. Given the fast expansion of olive orchards in Brazil, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of cover vegetation on soil and water losses under natural rainfall. In addition, it was assessed the crop performance and the vegetation cover index in different management systems in olive orchards. The study was carried out in soil erosion plots, where water and sediment were sampled and measured over two crops season, under the following treatments: in the first season, bare soil with olive cultivation (OBS); olive trees intercropped with spontaneous vegetation (OSV); olive trees intercropped with jack beans (OJB); olive trees intercropped with millet (OM) and, as a control, only bare soil (BS). In the second season, the OM treatment was replaced by olive trees intercropped with sunn hemp (OSH). On bare soils, soil loss was the highest reaching 303.9 Mg ha-1 yr-1 and where the surface runoff amounted to 484.8 mm yr-1. However, in the absence of competition for resources with other crops, olive trees performed best under this system. The olive orchards planted in shallow and sloping soils without cover crops showed unsustainable soil loss, crusting, and sealing in the superficial soil layer, which can progress quickly for soil degradation in the future. The efficiency in the reduction of loss in relation to bare soil was 4.11 and 12.93 % for the soil loss and 12.15 and 25.17 % for water loss, respectively, for olive with spontaneous vegetation and olive with jack beans. Cover crops combined with olive trees, and reconciled with the crop performance aspects of cultivation in tropical regions, is of great relevance for improving sustainability, especially regarding the reduction of soil and water losses due to water erosion.
Abstract Due to its high medicinal and nutritional values, blackberries have become increasingly interesting to producers and consumers. People are looking for healthier options to consume sugar with greater nutritional enrichment. However, replacement of the type of sugar is associated with significant changes in some parameters, finding suitable replacements that result in satisfactory products can be challenging. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of different sugars (white refined sugar, white crystal sugar, demerara sugar, brown sugar and coconut sugar) on the physicochemical, physical and sensory aspects of blackberry juices and jellies. The type of sugar influenced the physicochemical and physical characteristics of blackberry jelly and juice, which reflected the differences in acceptability of the final product. Information on the type of sugar and its benefits influenced the sensory acceptance of blackberry jelly and juice.
Abstract Temperate fruit species, originate from regions with cold winters and well-defined climatic seasons. These fruits are also produced in subtropical and tropical regions. The aim of this study was to determine the bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of different fruit cultivars from fruit trees of temperate climate, such as peach, pear, quince, and fig, able to be produced in subtropic regions. Analyzes of antioxidant activity, total phenolics and ascorbic acid were carried out. In peaches, ‘Biuti’ had the highest phenolic content, and ‘Bonão’ stood out in relation of antioxidant activity (ABTS) and ascorbic acid. For quinces, 'Lageado' had higher phenolic content, ‘Provence’ and ‘CTS’ showed higher antioxidant activity (ABTS), and ‘Alaranjado’ stood out in relation of antioxidant activity (DPPH). ‘Fuller’, ‘Smyrna’ and ‘Portugal’ are the ones with the highest levels of ascorbic acid. In pears, ‘Seleta’ showed the highest phenolic content, antioxidant activity (DPPH) and ascorbic acid. ‘Centenaria’ presented the highest antioxidant activity (ABTS). In figs, ‘Três num Prato’, ‘Lemon’ and ‘Brunswick’ had the highest ascorbic acid content. ‘Três num prato’ and ‘Roxo de Valinhos’ showed the highest phenolic content and antioxidant activity consecutively. It was found that cultivars of these evaluated fruits showed great variability, even under similar conditions.
Abstract The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of microwave and microwave combined with vacuum on the nutritional and sensory characteristics of blackberry jelly, in order to verify if they are actually more viable methods of processing when compared to the traditional process in open pan. It was verified that the processing methods studied did not influence the sensory characteristics of the obtained jelly, however, it was observed that the microwave processing, in particular low power microwave without vacuum, promotes smaller nutritional losses in the blackberry jelly. The jellies processed in low-power microwave without vacuum stood out from the others presenting the highest antioxidant activity by DPPH (2095.19 g f.w./g of DPPH) and ABTS method (21.81 μM trolox/g), the highest total phenolic content (504.58 mg GAE/100 g) and one of the highest ascorbic acid content (33.72 mg ascorbic acid/100 g). The jelly processed in high-power microwave without vacuum, stood out to have the highest antioxidant activity by the beta-carotene method (84.20% protection). In relation to the anthocyanins content, the jellies processed by vacuum microwave (low and high power) were highlighted because they presented the highest levels (16.25 and 15.03 mg of cyanidin equivalent 3 glucoside/100g, respectively).
Abstract Faced with the need to enhance the availability and add even more value to Brazilian native fruits, combined with the demand and the great importance of developing mixed fruit products, the objective of this work was to evaluate the processing potential of jabuticaba, pitanga and cambuci in the preparation of jellies, based on sensory and nutritional characteristics, through desirability-based mixture design. Given the high sensory and nutritional quality of the jellies obtained through this study we found that the development of mixed jelly containing the Brazilian Native fruits jabuticaba, pitanga and cambuci is perfectly feasible and of great interest. According to the sensory and nutritional characteristics the fruit mixed jelly should contain: 40-100% jabuticaba, 0-30% cambuci and 0-20% pitanga.
Abstract: The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of fig (Ficus carica) cultivars grown in subtropical regions on the physicochemical, rheological, and sensorial characteristics of the canned figs. Fresh fruits of the cultivars were analyzed for length, diameter, unit mass, total soluble solids, total titratable acidity, pH, total soluble solids/total titratable acidity ratio, and color. Canned figs were evaluated for titratable acidity, pH, color, texture profile, and sensory characteristics. The different physicochemical characteristics of the fresh figs influenced those of the obtained canned fruits. The canned figs from 'Lemon' and 'Pingo de Mel' presented the lowest and highest pH, respectively, whereas those from 'Troiano' showed the highest total titratable acidity. As for color, after processing, the canned figs, in general, presented a more greenish and darker color than the fresh fruits. The canned figs from 'Brunswick' and 'Troiano' had the lowest acceptance, whereas those from 'Bêbera Branca' and 'Roxo de Valinhos', the greatest. Less acid and softer canned figs are more widely accepted, which can be obtained from all cultivars, except from Brunswick and Troiano.
Resumo: O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência de cultivares de figueiras (Ficus carica) cultivadas em regiões subtropicais nas características físico-químicas, reológicas e sensoriais dos doces de figos em conserva. Os frutos frescos das cultivares foram analisados quanto a comprimento, diâmetro, massa unitária, sólidos solúveis totais, acidez total titulável, pH, relação sólidos solúveis totais/acidez total titulável e cor. Os figos em conserva foram avaliados quanto a acidez titulável, pH, cor, perfil de textura e características sensoriais. As diferentes características físico-químicas dos figos frescos influenciaram as dos frutos em conserva obtidos. Os figos em conserva de 'Lemon' e 'Pingo de Mel' apresentaram os menores e os maiores pH, respectivamente, enquanto os de 'Troiano' apresentaram a maior acidez total titulável. Em relação à cor, após o processamento, os figos em conserva, no geral, apresentaram coloração mais esverdeada e escura que o fruto fresco. Os figos em conserva obtidos de 'Brunswick' e 'Troiano' tiveram a menor aceitação e os de 'Bêbera Branca' e 'Roxo de Valinhos', a maior. Figos em conserva menos ácidos e mais macios são mais amplamente aceitos, o que pode ser obtido de todas as cultivares, exceto de Brunswick e Troiano.
ABSTRACT. The present study aimed to review the advances in the production of temperate fruits to determine future research directions that improve production in the tropics. Temperate fruits are no longer only produced in regions characterized by a cold winter period. These fruits are also produced in the sub-tropical and tropical regions characterized by mild winter or even the absence of chilling conditions often required by the tree to break dormancy. Currently, temperate fruit production is possible in certain regions of South America, Africa and Asia that are near to the Equator. However, temperate tree fruit production in tropical regions requires modified techniques to overcome dormancy and allow adequate flowering, growth and productivity. The main approaches taken are the development of cultivars with low chilling requirement, chemical induction of budbreak, interruption of irrigation during the winter period, defoliation, orchard densification, and double pruning. Breeding has become a key tool in the advancement of temperate fruit growing in the tropics, especially with the development of low chilling requirement cultivars.
ABSTRACT. As the fourth largest importer of olive oil and the fifth largest importer of olives, Brazil is one of the largest importers of olive (Olea europaea L.) products in the world. In recent decades, the introduction and growth of olive cultivars with lower chilling requirements in the south and southeast regions of Brazil have made olive production viable in the country. However, there is a dearth of information about the management of olive crops in Brazil, especially in relation to studies about the nutritional needs of olive trees grown in subtropical regions, which may enable advances in the productivity of this fruit. The aim of this study was to evaluate the growth, dry matter production and nutritional status of the olive tree under the effect of nutrient omissions, as well as to establish visual diagnostic parameters of nutrient deficiencies. We used a completely randomized design with ten treatments and three replicates grown in the Hoagland-Arnon nutrient solution and solutions with individual omissions of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, B, Fe, and Zn. The treatments that most limited the growth of olive trees were the N, Ca, and B omission treatments.
ABSTRACT The consumption of the cambuci in nature is limited due to the strong acidity and astringency of its fruits, and in view of the various accesses that can currently be cultivated, it is of great importance to study the cambuci processing in the form of products such as jams, as well as to survey which accessions are more suitable for processing. Thus, the aim of this study was to characterize different cambuci accesses (7240, 7225, 7262, 7292 and 7278) and to evaluate their influence on the physicochemical characteristics, rheological properties and sensory acceptance of jam in order to identify the access with the highest potential for industrial use. To characterize the different cambuci accessions, analyzes of length, diameter, unit mass, firmness, total soluble solids, titratable acidity, pH, SS/total acidity (ratio) and color (L*, a* and b*) were performed on fresh fruit. The different accessions were also analyzed for the content of phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity (DPPH and β-carotene method) and vitamin C. In the jellies obtained from different accessions, analyzes of soluble solids, titratable acidity, pH, color (L*, a* and b*), besides the sensorial analysis and texture profile were performed. Although the physicochemical characteristics of cambuci indicate that this fruit is not suitable for fresh consumption, due to the high acidity (0.64-1.41 g citric acid.100 g-1) and low sweetness (1.33-2.67 ºBrix), it was verified that the cambuci processing is extremely feasible, in particular the accesses 7240, 7278 and 7225, since the resulting jam has shown good sensory acceptance. In addition, it was verified that cambuci is a very nutritional rich fruit, being considered an excellent source of phenolic compounds (331.74-1134.54 mg GAEs.100 g-1), presenting a high antioxidant activity (DPPH- 83.06 to 97.18% of sequestration and beta-carotene 87.02 to 94.56% of protection) and a high vitamin C content (98.67- 128.80 mg.100 g-1).
RESUMO O consumo do cambuci in natura é limitado devido à forte acidez e adstringência de seus frutos e perante aos vários acessos que atualmente podem ser cultivados, torna-se de grande relevância o estudo do processamento do cambuci na forma de produtos como geleias, bem como o levantamento dos acessos que sejam mais adequados para o processamento. Desta forma, o objetivo deste estudo foi caracterizar diferentes acessos de cambuci (7240; 7225; 7262; 7292 e 7278) e avaliar a influência destes sobre as características físico-químicas, propriedades reológicas e aceitação sensorial da geleia visando identificar o acesso com o maior potencial de utilização industrial. Para caracterizar os diferentes acessos cambuci, análises de comprimento, diâmetro, massa unitária, firmeza, sólidos solúveis totais, acidez titulável, pH, SS/acidez total (ratio) e cor (L*, a* e b*) foram realizadas sobre as frutas frescas. Os diferentes acessos foram também analisados quanto ao conteúdo de compostos fenólicos, atividade antioxidante (método de DPPH e β-caroteno) e teor de vitamina C. Nas geleias obtidos a partir de diferentes acessos, foram realizadas análises de sólidos solúveis, acidez titulável, pH, cor (L*, a* e b*), além da análise sensorial e perfil de textura. Embora as características físico-químicas do cambuci indicaram que este fruto é impróprio para consumo fresco, devido à elevada acidez (0.64 a 1.41 g ácido cítrico.100 g-1) e baixa doçura (1.33-2.67º Brix), verificou-se que o processamento do cambuci é extremamente viável, em particular dos acessos 7240, 7278 e 7225, uma vez que a geleia resultante apresentou boa aceitação sensorial. Além disso, verificou-se que o cambuci é um fruto muito rico nutricionalmente, sendo considerado uma excelente fonte de compostos fenólicos (331.74-1134.54 mg GAEs 100 g-1), apresentando uma alta atividade antioxidante (DPPH- 83.06 a 97.18 % de sequestro e beta caroteno 87.02 a 94.56 % de proteção) e um elevado teor de vitamina C (98.67- 128.80 mg 100 g-1).
ABSTRACT In order to ensure success in controlled hybridizations in olive tree cultivation, the information on pollen viability and stigma receptivity is essential. The aim was to establish methodologies that increase the preservation of pollen viability and to establish the time to perform crossbreeds in hybridization studies with olive trees. Three experiments were performed with plants from the cultivar Arbequina, in Maria da Fé, MG, Brazil. In the first experiment, the description of the flower events was performed. In the second, anthers were desiccated in eppendorfs, being stored at three different conditions for pollen viability test: room temperature (27 ºC), refrigerator (8 ºC) and freezer (-10 ºC). In order to evaluate the in vitro germination, culture medium for olive pollen grains was used. In this respect, pollen grains were transferred in Petri dish containing culture medium and placed in a BOD (biochemical oxygen demand) chamber at 28 ºC for 60 h, being counted. The first evaluation was performed prior to the assembly of the experiment, testing the initial viability, whereas the second occurred 24 h after storage. Subsequently, seven evaluations were performed fortnightly. In the third experiment, the stigma receptivity was verified by the 3% hydrogen peroxide method, with flowers in pre-anthesis, anthesis and post-anthesis, evaluated hourly in the period from 7 a.m. to 6 p.m. for three days. In the description of the flower events, it was verified that the olive tree shows diurnal anthesis, with flower opening between 10 a.m. and 11 a.m. The anthers stored in a freezer preserved the viability for 60 days and the stigmas were receptive since the pre-anthesis.
RESUMO Para assegurar o sucesso em hibridizações controladas na cultura da oliveira, é fundamental informações sobre a viabilidade polínica, assim como a receptividade do estigma. Objetivou-se estabelecer metodologias que aumentem a preservação da viabilidade polínica e estabelecer o momento para se realizar cruzamentos em trabalhos de hibridização com oliveiras. Foram realizados três experimentos com plantas da cultivar Arbequina, em Maria da Fé, MG. No primeiro experimento realizou-se a descrição dos eventos florais. No segundo, anteras foram dessecadas em eppenddorfs, sendo armazenados em três condições diferentes para teste de viabilidade polínica : temperatura ambiente (27 ºC), geladeira (8 ºC) e freezer (-10 ºC). Para avaliação da germinação in vitro, utilizou-se meio de cultura para grãos de pólen de oliveira. Para isso, grãos de pólen foram transferidos em placa de Petri, contendo meio de cultura e colocadas em estufa do tipo BOD (Demanda Biológica de Oxigenio) a 28 ºC por 60 h, sendo contabilizados. A primeira avaliação foi realizada antes da montagem do experimento, testando a viabilidade inicial: a segunda 24 horas após armazenamento. Posteriormente, foram realizadas sete avaliações quinzenais. No terceiro experimento verificou-se a receptividade estigmática pelo método de peróxido de hidrogênio 3%, com flores em pré-antese, antese e pós-antese, avaliados a cada hora, no período de 7 h as 18 h por três dias. Na descrição dos eventos florais, verificou-se que a oliveira apresenta antese diurna, com abertura floral entre 10 e 11 horas. As anteras armazenadas em freezer preservam a viabilidade por 60 dias e os estigmas apresentaram-se receptivos desde a pré-antese.
Abstract Faced with the need for greater knowledge of the different physalis species, the aim of this study was to characterize different Native American physalis species (Physalis peruviana L., Physalis pubescens L., Physalis angulata L., Physalis mínimos L. and Physalis ixocarpa Brot) as to their physicochemical characteristics, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity. Besides that, in order to increase their use and add even more value to this fruit, we also evaluate the influence of these different species on the physicochemical, rheological and sensory characteristics of physalis jelly. In addition, this study evaluated the sensory acceptance of the combination of physalis jellies obtained from different species with brie-type cheese. The Peruviana, Pubences and Angulata, are highlighted for being the nutritionally richest species, with the highest levels of phenolic compounds, vitamin C and antioxidant. Moreover, they stand out for originating the most widely sensory accepted jellies, either in pure form or in combination with brie-type cheese.
ABSTRACT: Plum growing is widespread in temperate zones. In Brazil, the exploitation of this fruit tree is extended from the colder regions of the state of Rio Grande do Sul to the south of the state of Minas Gerais. However, cultivars exploited at subtropical regions are scarce due to competition. The present study aimed to select productive cultivars of plums adapted to Brazilian subtropical conditions. In this respect, the plum cultivars ‘Fla 87-7’, ‘Gema de Ouro’, ‘Grancoure’, ‘Harry Pickstone’, ‘Januária’, ‘Santa Rosa’ and ‘Satsuma’ were grafted on the ‘Okinawa’ rootstock ‘and evaluated by two cycles in the municipality of Lavras, MG, Brazil. The phenological development, physical and chemical properties of fruits, average number of fruits per plant, average fruit mass and estimated yield were evaluated for each cultivar. It is concluded that plum cultivars ‘Januária’ and ‘Grancoure’ are the most promising for subtropical regions, mainly due to the volume of produced fruits and the quality of fruits.
RESUMO: O cultivo de ameixeira é amplamente difundido nas zonas temperadas. No Brasil, a exploração desta fruteira se estende desde as regiões mais frias do Rio Grande do Sul até o sul de Minas Gerais. No entanto, as cultivares exploradas nas regiões subtropicais são escassas devido a trabalhos de competição. O presente trabalho objetivou-se selecionar cultivares produtivas de ameixas e adaptadas às condições subtropicais brasileiras. Para isso, foram utilizadas as ameixeiras ‘Fla 87-7’, ‘Gema de Ouro’, ‘Grancoure’, ‘Harry Pickstone’, ‘Januária’, ‘Santa Rosa’ e ‘Satsuma’, enxertadas sobre o porta-enxerto ‘Okinawa’ e avaliadas por dois ciclos no município de Lavras, MG. Avaliou-se o desenvolvimento fenológico; atributos físico-químicos das frutas; número médio de frutas por planta; massa média das frutas e produtividade estimada em cada cultivar. Conclui-se que as ameixeiras ‘Januária’ e ‘Grancoure’ são as mais promissoras para regiões subtropicais, principalmente, pelo volume de frutas produzidas e qualidade das frutas.