Abstract: Investigation of hyperferritinemia in metabolic syndrome patients represents a diagnostic challenge, but it is essential for the identification of individuals with iron overload. Hepcidin negatively regulates iron absorption and release. An increase in hepcidin occurs when iron levels are sufficient or in inflammatory states, conditions often associated with hyperferritinemia. Hemochromatosis causes hyperferritinemia due to iron overload, but frequently has low hepcidin levels. Our aim was to evaluate biochemical and molecular parameters related to iron metabolism in patients with metabolic syndrome. We evaluated 94 patients with metabolic syndrome according to the International Diabetes Federation criteria in a cross-sectional study. Anthropometric data and diagnostic criteria for metabolic syndrome, iron dosage, ferritin, transferrin saturation, hepcidin, and the C282Y and H63D mutations in the HFE hemochromatosis gene were evaluated. Prevalence of hyperferritinemia in the study population was 27.7% and was higher in males (46.2%) than in females (14.5%). Increase in transferrin saturation correlated with mutations in the hemochromatosis gene. Hyperferritinemia was associated to transferrin saturation and hepcidin after logistic regression analysis. In conclusion, hyperferritinemia is a frequent finding in metabolic syndrome patients, most frequently in men; and hepcidin assessment can be useful for the investigation of ferritin increase in those subjects.
The acute leukemias are characterized by the clonal proliferation and maturative blockage of hematopoietic cells, with diffuse substitution of the bone marrow by neoplasic cells. The acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogeneous group of clonal disease in the hematopoietic tissue and predominantly affects people older than 60. The AML has eight morphologically different subtypes: AML M0 to M7. The diagnostic methods for identification of AML and subtypes classification are based on morphological, cytochemical and immunophenotyping patterns, besides genetic and molecular analyses. The diagnosis of leukemia is important to the lineage differentiation in AML or ALL and also for the identification of biphenotypic acute leukemia (BAL). The aim of this study was to perform a bibliographic review of AML, giving emphasis on laboratory methods useful for its identification and differentiation.
As leucemias agudas caracterizam-se pela proliferação clonal e pelo bloqueio maturativo das células hematopoéticas, com substituição difusa da medula óssea por células neoplásicas. A leucemia mielóide aguda (LMA) é um grupo heterogêneo de doenças clonais do tecido hematopoético, que acomete predominantemente idosos acima de 60 anos de idade. A LMA apresenta oito subtipos distintos morfologicamente: LMA M0 a M7. Os métodos diagnósticos para identificação da LMA e classificação dos subtipos são baseados em critérios morfológicos, citoquímicos e de imunofenotipagem, acrescidos de análise genética. Além de ser importante para a diferenciação do tipo da linhagem da leucemia, se mielóide (LMA) ou linfóide (LLA), o diagnóstico é também de grande importância para identificar a leucemia bifenotípica aguda (BAL). O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar uma revisão bibliográfica sobre LMA, dando ênfase aos métodos laboratoriais utilizados para a sua identificação e diferenciação.