ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to determine if lipid extraction processes alter the isotopic value of δ13C and δ15N of tissues (pectoral muscle, thigh and liver) and eggs and if the use of anticoagulants interferes with blood and plasma δ13C and δ15N isotopic values. Samples were acquired from the same flock of birds. The 32 egg samples were randomly divided into four treatments (liquid, dehydrated, and fat-extracted with ether or chloroform + methanol) with eight replicates each. The 24 samples of pectoral muscle, thigh muscle and liver of broilers were randomly divided into three treatments (dehydrated, fat-extracted with ether and chloroform + methanol) with eight replicates each. Blood samples were divided into a 3x3 factorial arrangement with three physical forms (liquid, oven-dried or freeze-dried) and three collection methods (with no anticoagulant, with EDTA or heparin). Plasma samples were distributed in a 3x2 factorial arrangement, with three physical forms (liquid, oven-dried, or freeze-dried) and two anticoagulants (EDTA or heparin). The obtained isotopic results were submitted to the multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and univariate (ANOVA, complemented by Tukey’ test), using the GLM procedure of the statistical program SAS (1996) or Minitab 16. The results show that it is possible to use the evaluated methods of fat extraction, drying and anticoagulants in the isotopic analyses of carbon-13 and nitrogen-15 in chicken tissues.
ABSTRACT The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of phytogenic additives (PA) and organic acids (OA), alone or in combination, on the performance, intestinal histomorphometry and lipid oxidation, and immune responses of broiler chickens. In this experiment, 820 one-day-old chicks were distributed according to a completely randomized design in a 2 × 2 + 1 factorial arrangement, with four replicates of 41 broilers each. The dietary treatments consisted of a control diet with no PA or OA (CD); CD with OA and no PA (CD+OA-PA); CD with PA and no OA (CD+PA-CD); CDwith both PA and OA (CD+PA+CD); and CD + avilamycin + monesin sodium. Broiler performance was not affected by the alternative feed additives, except from 1 to 21 days, when broilers fed the CD or CD+PA+OA diets showed higher body weight gain than those fed the CD with only OA. The broilers fed the diet containing avilamycin and monensin presented better performance. The supplementation of PA and OA increased bursalcortical area on21 and 42 days post-hatch. On 21 days post-hatch, broilers fed the AGP diet presented higher ileal villus height than those fed the control diet. The pH values of the jejunum content were reduced on the OA-fed chickens. Higher villus height and crypt depth were found in the alternative additive-fed chickens on 7 days post-hatch. On 42 days post-hatch, the percentage of the bursal cortex increased in PA-fed broilers; however, there was no increase in antibody production. The PA-fed chickens presented lower thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values in the small intestine. The dietary supplementation of phytogenic additives, individually or in combination associated with organic acids, does not affect broiler live performance or intestinal histomorphometry; however, it enhances immune responses and intestinal quality.
ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the process of L-methionine incorporation in the blood plasma, liver, breast muscle, and abdominal fat of 35- to 59-d-old broiler chickens using the carbon stable isotope (12C and 13C) technique for the estimation of methionine requirements. In this experiment, 51 male broiler chickens orally received a solution of L-[13C1] methionine (92 atm % 13C) at 29 µmol/kg live weight/h for 6 h. Three birds were sacrificed for tissue collection at times 0 h (control), 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, 168, and 336 h after the administration of the first dose. Tissue L-[13C1] methionine incorporation mass and percentage results were analyzed using Minitab 16 statistical software. Except for abdominal fat, tissue methionine levels gradually increased after the administration of the methionine solution. The calculated half-lives of methionine in the blood plasma, liver, and breast muscle were 2.52, 1.36, and 3.57 h, respectively, suggesting a greater rate of methionine incorporation in the liver, followed by blood plasma and breast muscle. The isotopic dilution showed that 2.81, 4.79, and 23.64% of the administered L-methionine were retained in the blood plasma, liver, and breast muscle, respectively. The methionine requirements of finisher broilers may be estimated using the carbon isotope technique, and approximately 3, 5, and 24% methionine is used for the synthesis of blood plasma, liver, and breast muscle, respectively, at the evaluated dose.
The effects of the dietary substitution of dry corn by high-moisture corn grain silage (HMCGS) were evaluated on the performance, nutrient digestibility and serum biochemical parameters of broilers reared in an alternative production system and submitted to different environmental temperatures. A total of 288 one-day-old male Cobb chicks were distributed according to a randomized block design in a 3x4 factorial arrangement: three environmental temperatures (hot, thermoneutral or cold) and four levels of HMCGS in substitution of dry corn (0%, 20%, 40% or 60%). The acid analysis showed that the evaluated HMCGS contained average percentage values of ethanol, lactic acid, and acetic acid (expressed in 100% of dry matter) of 0.7690, 2.7320 and 0.0249%, respectively. Propionic and butyric acids were not detected. Dry corn and HMCGS presented pH values of 5.8 and 3.3, respectively. The inclusion of HMCGS reduced dietary pH, as shown by the values of 5.7, 5.4, 5.1 and 4.8 recorded for the diets containing 0%, 20%, 40% and 60% of HMCGS, respectively. There was no significant interaction between diets and environmental temperature. HMCGS may replace up to 40% dry corn in broiler diets when performance, triglyceride levels, and HDL-cholesterol ratio is considered, and up to 60% when nutrient digestibility is evaluated. High environmental temperature impairs broiler performance, nutrient digestibility, and serum biochemistry, demonstrating the influence of environmental temperature on broiler metabolism and performance.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the dietary supplementation of phytogenic additives (PAs) and glutamine plus glutamic acid (Gln/Glu), associated or not, in replacement of antibiotic growth promoters and anticoccidials (AGP/AC) on the performance and carcass yield of broilers. Five hundred male Cobb broilers were housed in an experimental house and randomly distributed into five treatments, with four replicates of 25 birds each. Treatments consisted of a control diet (CD); CD+AGP/AC; CD+Gln/Glu; CD+PAs; CD+Gln/ Glu+PAs. Diets were formulated only with plant feedstuffs, i.e., they did not contain any animal byproducts. Performance data were collected for the accumulated periods of 1-7, 1-21, and 1-42 days of age. Carcass yield and parts yield were determined at 42 days of age. Treatments did not influence performance during none of the evaluated periods. The greatest carcass yield (p<0.05) was obtained in birds in the treatments CD+Gln/Glu and CD+Gln/Glu+PAs relative to CD, but not different from birds in the AGP+AC and PAs treatments, which were not different from the CD treatment. Birds fed the CD+Gln/Glu diet presented greater breast yield (p<0.05) compared with those in the CD and AGP/AC treatments, but there was no difference in comparison with the other treatments. Under the conditions of the present experiment, the dietary supplementation with phytogenic additives and with glutamine plus glutamic acid does not affect the performance, but improves carcass yield and breast yield of broilers.
The objective of the present study was to trace the inclusion of poultry offal meal (POM) in the diet of meat-type quails reared for a long period using the technique of stable isotopes. A number of 320 quails were randomly distributed into eight treatments: vegetable diet (T1), and a diet containing 8% POM were fed until the end of the experimental period (T2) or replaced by the vegetable diet on day 42 (T3), 56 (T4), 70 (T5), 84 (T6), 98 (T7), and 112 (T8). Breast muscle samples were collected from four birds randomly selected per treatment every 14 days. The obtained isotope results were submitted to multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) with the aid of the GLM procedure of statistical SAS program. Treatments were different from T1 when birds were sacrificed at least two weeks after the diet was changed. T2 results were different from T1 in all evaluated periods. It was concluded that it is possible to trace poultry offal meal inclusion in a strictly vegetable diet after the diet was changed for at least 14 days.
The present study aimed at evaluating the histo-morphological changes resulting from different fasting periods before the collection of tissue samples in different segments of the small intestine (duodenum, jejunum and ileum) of 7-d-old male chicks of a broiler and a layer strain. A completely randomized experimental design in in a 2x7 factorial arrangement, being two strains with different growth rates (Ross 308 and HyLine® W36) and seven fasting periods (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 hours ), with six replicates, totaling 84 birds. The comparison of the morphometrics of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum of broiler and layer chicks demonstrated faster digestive tract development in broilers relative to layers. The fasting period caused morphological changes in the liver and small and large intestines in both strains. Therefore, it must be highlighted that in studies involving organ weights and intestinal morphometrics, birds must not be submitted to fasting before tissue collection.
The objective of this study was to verify if the dietary inclusion of sugarcane yeast at levels commonly used in broiler diets influences the traceability of cattle meat meal and poultry offal meal, using the technique of stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes in the breast muscle of chickens. A number of 325 one-d-old male broilers were randomly distributed into 13 treatments with 25 birds each. Treatments consisted of a control diet based on corn and soybean meal, and the inclusion of 1, 2, 4, or 6% meat and bone meal, poultry offal meal or sugarcane yeast. At 42 days of age, six birds per treatment were randomly selected, sacrificed, and their breast muscle was collected for isotopic ration analysis. The isotopic ratio of birds fed the diet with inclusion of 6% sugarcane yeast was different from those fed the control treatment, but not from those fed diets with the inclusion of 2, 4 and 6% meat and bone meal or 4 and 6% poultry offal meal. The inclusion of 6% sugarcane yeast in broiler diets based on corn and soybean meal may affect the traceability of animal by product meals.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of corn texture and the particle size on broiler performance, carcass yield, nutrient digestibility, and digestive organ morphometrics. In Experiment I, 720 male Cobb chicks were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement, consisting two corn textures (dented and hard) and three corn particle sizes, was applied, with four replicates of 30 birds each. Corn particle size was classified according to geometric mean diameter (GMD) as fine - 0.46 mm; medium - 0.73 mm, and coarse - 0.87 mm. In Experiment II, 120 broiler chicks were used to evaluate corn digestibility during the periods of 16 to 22 days and 35 to 41 days of age, using the method of total excreta collection. In Experiment I, corn particle size influenced body weight, average weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio of 21-day-old birds. Corn texture and particle size did not affect the performance of 42-day-old broilers or carcass traits. In Experiment II, there was no influence of corn texture and particle size on digestive organ weights. Dented corn increased nitrogen excretion in the first trial, and hard corn improved dry matter digestibility in the second metabolic trial. Corn with fine particle size promotes better performance of broilers at 21 days of age. Hard corn results in higher dry matter digestibility and lower nitrogen excretion, and consequently higher production factor in 42-day-old broilers.
This present study aimed at evaluating the effect of the addition of an emulsifier to diets containing soybean oil, poultry fat or their blend, on the performance, carcass traits, serum lipid levels, pancreatic lipase concentration and nutrient digestibility of broilers. A randomized block design was applied using a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement, with three fat sources (soybean oil, poultry fat, and a blend of 50% soybean oil and 50% poultry fat) and the addition or not of an emulsifier. In experiment I, broiler performance, carcass traits, serum cholesterol, HDL, and triglyceride levels, and pancreatic lipase activity in 42-day-old broilers were evaluated. In experiment II, dry matter (DM), ether extract (EE), crude protein (CP) and crude fiber (CF) coefficients of digestibility were analyzed. Broilers fed the diet containing soybean oil and emulsifier presented higher body weight, weight gain and better feed conversion ratio. When birds were fed poultry fat and the fat blend (soybean oil and poultry fat) and the emulsifier was added to the diets, pancreatic lipase concentration increased. It was concluded that the use of soybean oil, poultry fat and their blend does no in the diet does not influence the performance, carcass traits, or serum cholesterol, HDL and triglyceride levels of 42-day-old broilers. The addition of emulsifiers to diets containing poultry fat improves ether extract digestibility and increases the production and secretion of pancreatic lipase.
Our goal was to trace the inclusion of poultry offal meal (OM) in diets by using carbon (13C/12C) and nitrogen (15N/14N) isotopic ratios of different tissues in order to contribute for the development of an independent technology for the certification of the feeding of broilers reared on diets with no addition of animal ingredients. Eighty one-day-old chicks were randomly distributed into five experimental treatments, that is, diets containing increasing levels of OM inclusion (0, 2, 4, 8 and 16% OM), with four replicates of four birds each. At 42 days of age, four birds per treatment (n=4) were randomly selected, weighed, and sacrificed to collect breast muscle (Pectoralis major), keel and tibia samples to determine their isotopic ratios (13C/12C e 15N/14N). It was observed that 13C and 15N enrichment increased as a function of increasing OM inclusion in all diets. The analyses of the Pectoralis major showed that that only treatments with 8 and 16% OM dietary inclusion were different form those in the control group (0% OM). On the other hand, when the keel and tibia were analyzed, in addition to 8 and 16% OM), the treatment with 4% OM inclusion was also different from the control group. The use of isotopic ratios of stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes is an alternative to trace OM inclusion in broiler diets as it is capable of tracing OM levels below those usually practiced by the poultry industry in Brazil.
This study aimed at evaluating the effect of nucleotides on the performance and carcass yield of broilers fed diets with no antibiotic growth promoters (AGP), anticoccidials, or animal feedstuffs. In the trial, 600 Ross 308 male broilers were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design into six treatments with four replicates of 25 birds each. Treatments consisted of a control diet (CD), CD + AGP, CD + 0.04%, CD + 0.05%, CD + 0.06%, and CD + 0.07% nucleotides. The experimental diets did not contain anticoccidials, and birds were vaccinated against coccidiosis at three days of age. No significant differences were detected among broilers submitted to the different treatments in none of the studied parameters. Under the conditions of this experiment, diets supplemented with nucleotides did not influence broiler performance or carcass yield at 42 days of age, and were not different from the feeds not containing any additive or with AGP.
The aim of this study was to trace the inclusion of animal meals in layer diets by analyzing eggs and their fractions (yolk and albumen) using the technique of carbon and nitrogen isotopes. Two-hundred and eighty-eight (288) 73-week-old Shaver White layers, never fed animal ingredients, were randomly distributed in six treatments with six replicates each. The treatments were: control - corn and soybean meal based diet and five other experimental diets including bovine meat and bone meal (MBM); poultry offal meal (POM); feather meal (FM); feather meal and poultry offal meal (OFM), and poultry offal meal, feather meal, and meat and bone meal (MBOFM). The isotopic results were submitted to multivariate analysis of variance. Ellipses were determined through an error matrix (95% confidence) to identify differences between treatments and the control group. In the albumen and yolk of all experimental treatments were significantly different from the control diet (p < 0.05). In summary, the stable isotope technique is able to trace the animal meals included in layer feeds in the final product under these experimental conditions.
This paper aimed at evaluating the influence of diets containing different isotopic values of carbon-13 turnover on the half-life of egg (yolk + albumen), yolk and albumen individually, and blood of poultry using delta‰13C isotopic variation. Commercial layers fed four experimental isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets (RC4, RC3, RMC4 and RMC3) containing different isotopic values, during an experimental period of 56 days. Turnover of the studied tissues was influenced by the experimental diets. Blood and albumen were more influenced by dietary treatments as compared to egg and yolk. The RMC3 diet induced better performance (better feed intake and higher egg production) due faster rate of carbon substitution than the RC4 diet, and lower half-life for egg (yolk + albumen), yolk, and albumen.
Bovine meat and bone meal (MBM) was widely used in animal diets until outbreaks of Bovine Spongiform Encefalopathy (BSE) occurred in some countries. It has not been confirmed yet whether or not BSE may be transmitted to man through chicken meat originated from poultry that had been fed diets containing MBM. Therefore, consumers nowadays express preference for meat originated from birds fed exclusively vegetable diets. This study analyzed samples of major breast muscle (Pectoralis major) using mass spectrometry of stable isotopes (carbon and nitrogen) as a means to assess the presence of MBM in broiler diets, a technique that might be used in the certification of poultry quality. A total of 150 day-old chicks were reared in five randomized treatments with increasing MBM dietary inclusion levels (0, 1, 2, 4 and 8%). On day 42, breast muscle samples were collected from three birds per treatment and used in the determination of 13C/12C and 15N/14N isotope ratios. The breast muscle isotope values were expressed as delta in parts per thousand (delta‰). The following carbon isotope values (13C) were found: 18.74‰±0.11, 18.51‰±0.19, 18.24‰±0.10, -17.79‰ ±0.12, and -17.15‰±0.15 for 0, 1, 2, 4 and 8% MBM dietary levels, respectively. Nitrogen isotope values (15N) were 1.65‰±0.14, 1.65‰±0.28, 1.72‰±0.08, 1.95‰±0.16, and 2.52‰ ± 0.09 for 0, 1, 2, 4 and 8% MBM dietary levels, respectively. This study showed important differences in delta13C and delta15N values in breast meat, evidencing a simultaneous enrichment of this isotopic pair, which allowed tracing MBM in bird diets. Analysis of carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes may be used to ensure feeding with exclusively vegetable diets, and might also be used as a reliable evaluation tool in broiler meat certification. The diet with 1% inclusion level of MBM and the exclusively vegetable diet showed similar results.