ABSTRACT The agro-industry generates large volumes of waste with high organic load, which requires the development of technologies to minimize the impacts caused by the improper disposal of this waste on the environment. The citric acid produced by agro food wastes as substrate for fermentation is a solution to reduce the organic load of these pollutants and add economic value by generating a profitable product. Aspergillus niger AN 400 was used to produce citric acid from cheese whey. The study was divided in three phases according to the addition of extra sugar (50, 100, 150 g.L-1): Phase I, with glucose; Phase II, with sucrose, and Phase III, with cheese whey only, without adding extra sugar. The reactors remained under agitation 150 rpm and at 30ºC for 10 days. The highest concentration of citric acid (2,379 mg.L-1) was observed upon the addition of 100 g.L-1 of glucose. However, the greatest yields were recorded in the reactors with 50 (458 mg.L-1.day-1) and 100 g.L-1 (745 mg.L-1. day-1) of sucrose, followed by the reactor that contained only cheese whey, without adding extra sugar (313 mg.L-1.day-1), demonstrating the potential of this waste to obtain citric acid with a great commercial interest.
RESUMO A agroindústria gera grandes volumes de resíduos com carga poluidora elevada, o que exige o desenvolvimento de tecnologias para minimização de impactos causados pela disposição inadequada desses resíduos no ambiente. A produção de ácido cítrico utilizando resíduos agroalimentares como substrato para fermentação é uma solução para a redução da carga orgânica desses poluentes, além de agregar valor econômico pela geração de produto rentável. Aspergillus niger AN 400 foi utilizado para produzir ácido cítrico a partir de soro de queijo. A pesquisa foi dividida em três fases, conforme adição de açúcar extra (50, 100 e 150 g.L-1): Fase I, com glicose; Fase II, com sacarose; e Fase III, apenas com o soro de queijo, sem adição extra de açúcar. Os reatores permaneceram sob agitação de 150 rpm e a 30ºC, por 10 dias. A maior concentração de ácido cítrico (2.379 mg.L-1) foi observada quando da adição de 100 g.L-1 de glicose. Porém, em termos de produtividade, os maiores valores foram registrados nos reatores com 50 (458 mg.L-1.dia-1) e 100 g.L-1 (745 mg.L-1.dia-1) de sacarose, seguido pelo reator que continha apenas soro de queijo, sem adição de açúcar extra (313 mg.L-1.dia-1), demonstrando o potencial desse resíduo para a obtenção desse ácido de grande interesse comercial.
ABSTRACT The mineralization of the azo dye congo red by the fungi Phanerochaete chrysosporium was studied in two sequential batch bioreactors (R1 and R2), operated in cycles of 48 h (step I) and 24 h (step II). In step I, glucose concentration was 1 g.L-1 in both reactors and in step II, 1 g.L-1 of glucose was maintained in R1, but R2 received no addition of glucose. In step I, the average dye removal efficiencies were 76 ± 29 % (R1) and 53 ± 15% (R2), while in step II the averages recorded for dye removal for R1 and R2 were 84 ± 15 and 70 ± 28%, respectively. The rates of dye removal were 0.04 h-1 in R1 and 0.03 h-1 in R2 in step I. Higher rates were obtained in step II, 0,07 h-1 and 0,02 h-1 for R1 and R2, respectively. The highest dye removal occurred in R1 and, in R2, the residual dye was further removed. Laccase was the oxidised at higher amount, in step I was 54 μmol.min-1 for R1 and 38 μmolmin-1 for R2. The proposed treatment system was very effective in removing the azo dye, however the mineralization may not be complete and some by-products may have been formed, according to spectrofotometric analysis, were the peak corresponding to benzene, 220 nm, persisted.
ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to assess the sperm quality and testicular histomorphometry of Wistar rats supplemented with extract and fractions of fruits of Tribulus terrestris L. The ethanolic extract was obtained by dynamic maceration of spray-dried fruit. This extract was fractionated by liquid-liquid partition, using increasing polarity solvents. Twenty male rats were separated in four groups, with five rats in each group. The control was supplemented with distilled water, while the others were daily given the ethanolic extract, hexanic or aqueous fraction soluble in methanol in a dose of 42 mg.kg-1.day-1 for 70 days. Sperm was obtained from the right epididymal tail for the analysis of motility, count, morphology and viability. The testicular weight of groups supplemented with ethanolic extract and aqueous fraction soluble in methanol was higher when compared to the control. The gonadosomatic index increased in the group supplemented with ethanolic extract. The nuclear, cytoplasmic and individual volume of Leydig cells increased in supplementation with hexanic and aqueous fractions soluble in methanol. It was concluded that the extract influenced the spermatogenesis, while hexanic and aqueous fractions soluble in methanol promoted the changes in the intertubular compartment. Therefore, Tribulus terrestris did not improve the sperm quality of the rats.