Two mesoporous SBA-15 materials with different morphologies (spherical and fiber-shaped) were synthesized and evaluated as supports for nickel-based catalysts for polymerization reactions. The supports were pretreated with trimethylaluminum (TMA), and the catalyst dibromo-bis(4-amino-2,3,5,6-tetramethylimino)acenaphthene nickel(II) was attached to the supports and activated with TMA or MAO (methylaluminoxane). Characterization showed that the insertion of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTABr) as a cosurfactant led to spherical SBA-15 with a decrease in particle and pore sizes to 4.8 nm compared to 6.5 nm in traditional fiber-shaped SBA-15. The spherical SBA-15 showed thicker walls than the fiber-shaped SBA-15, attributed to the increase in functional groups of the cosurfactant. The different spherical and fiber-shaped morphologies did not show any significant difference in the productivity of polyethylene. The catalyst supported on spherical SBA-15 materials showed 58% productivity compared to its homogeneous analogue using TMA as a cocatalyst.
In this work, the catalysis area in Brazil is analyzed from several perspectives between 1977 and 2017. The conceptual aspects and the area at world level are briefly introduced. A history of the main organizational initiatives of the area is also presented, highlighting the activities of the Catalysis Division of the Brazilian Chemical Society. An overview of the industry situation related to the area, as well as the evolution of scientific production in Brazil, are also discussed.
Benzene, toluene and xylene (BTX) are a particular class of volatile organic compounds, which are highly toxic pollutants. In this study, samples of gallium-containing mesoporous silica (MS-Ga7% and MS-Ga11%) were synthesized and their catalytic activity in the oxidation of BTX was investigated. The physicochemical characterization shows that the inclusion of gallium in the mesoporous silica structure leads to an increase in the number of oxygen vacancies in the structure of the MS-Ga system, which can result in an increase in the total and surface oxygen mobility. The results show the highest conversion for benzene (65%), with > 40% for toluene and > 28% for o-xylene. The high catalytic activity observed was attributed to a combination of several factors including a higher number of active sites (gallium and gallium oxide) being exposed, with a greater mobility of the active oxygen species on the surface of the catalyst promoting the catalytic activity.
To understand the physicochemical properties and catalytic activity during the pyrolysis of atmospheric petroleum residue, a template-free ZSM-5 zeolite was synthesized using a direct method without additional seeds or an organic structure director and compared with conventionally synthesized ZSM-5. The crystallinities of the two zeolites were evaluated by XRD and FTIR and were quite similar; however, structural analyses using SEM and argon physisorption revealed that the zeolites diverged in particle diameter and in the external surface area of the micropores. The synthesis procedure without a template incorporated additional aluminum into the crystalline network, according to ICP-AES and TPD NH3 experiments. The catalytic pyrolysis performed over the template-free ZSM-5 generated results comparable to those for pyrolysis performed over the conventional ZSM-5 according to its hydrocarbon distribution. The selectivity to aromatics compounds was exactly the same for both ZSM-5 zeolites, and these values stand out compared to thermal pyrolysis. The template-free ZSM-5 produced 20% of light hydrocarbons (C4-C6), where such compounds are olefins and paraffins of great interest to the petrochemical industry. Therefore, template-free ZSM-5 is promising for industrial use due to its lowered synthesis time, low-cost and significant distribution to light hydrocarbons.
This work evaluates the immobilization of Candida antarctica lipase (Fraction B) using poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) nanoparticles as support. The effects of immobilization time (30-150 min) and pH (5-10) on lipase loading were evaluated. The stability of the immobilized enzyme towards temperature (40, 60, and 80 ºC), reuse and storage (at 4 ºC) were also determined. Furthermore, to assess its potential application in a system of interest, the immobilized lipase was used as a catalyst in the esterification of geraniol with oleic acid. The results indicated a time of 120 minutes and pH of 7 as optimal for immobilization. A 21 hour exposure of the PHBV-lipase derivative to 60 ºC showed a 33% reduction of the initial activity while storage at 4 ºC led to a residual activity (5% of the original activity). The derivative was used without significant loss of activity for 4 successive cycles. The use of the immobilized lipase as a catalyst in the production of geranyl oleate led to about 88% conversion of the initial reactants to products.
Montmorillonite clays are of great interest for industrial processes such as catalysis and adsorption. The textural properties of clays can be modified in an attempt to increase their uses. This paper describes the acid treatment of natural montmorillonite clay. The materials were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic absorption spectroscopy (AA) and BET surface area measurements. Three different acids (HCl, HNO3 and H2SO4) were tested, and HCl and H2SO4 were more efficient for removing Fe from the clay. The results indicate that HCl better preserves the material structure because less Al is removed. A central composite design (CCD) 2² was applied to evaluate the treatment using HCl. The temperature and concentration presented positive effects on the removal of Fe, Al and Mg. Combinations of the HCl acid solution concentration and temperature, such as 4 mol.L-1/50 °C and 1 mol.L-1/75 °C, assured that Fe was removed with less damage to the structure.
Clay is often employed as a catalyst, but quartz impurities can decrease the catalytic efficiency. Fine particles of clay can be purified by flotation. We examined the cationic surfactant hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HTAB), the anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and the non-ionic TRITON X-100 for separating the quartz impurities from clay. Using X-ray diffraction, the separation was monitored for changes in the peaks corresponding to clay and quartz. Cationic surfactant HTAB was most effective in separating the quartz-clay mixture and the selectivity can be explained by internal adsorption of the surfactant onto the clay and external adsorption onto the quartz.
This work proposes the study of heterogeneous photocatalysis using TiO2 impregnated in zeolites beta, ZSM-5, mordenite, NaXb, NaXp and NaY for the decomposition of methylene blue. The catalysts were characterized by XRD, IR, textural analyses by N2 adsorption, SEM, DRS and the reaction of decomposition was monitored by UV visible. The results indicated that didn't have structural changes in the catalysts after Ti impregnations, only in the case of NaY and NaX zeolites. The better photocatalyst to metylene blue decomposition was beta/Ti zeolite due had one structure more accessible (with bigger porous) helping in TiO2 dispersion and catalytic active.
This work proposes the synthesis of zeolite A by IZA standard proceedures starting from a natural clay. The clay was used in its natural form and after calcination at 900ºC. The resulting materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and porosity analysis by nitrogen adsorption. Results showed low surface area for Na-A zeolite in sodium form, but a higher one in CaA based on the nitrogen accessibility. The presence of cubic crystals for the A phase was observed in the SEM micrographies. The new procedure starting from natural clay favors the formation of sodalite while that using the calcinated clay gives A.
Desulphurization process by adsorption was studied employing a commercial diesel dooped with 1000 mg/L of benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene. The adsorbents materials employed were three types of activated alumina (acid, basic and neutral). For comparison, adsorption process was made also using oxidized diesel sample. The results showed that the adsorbents were selective for sulphur compounds removal from fuels. The contact time have influence in adsorption process achieving 80% of removal for not oxidized dibenzothiophene. The three studied alumina types showed similar behavior and a greater selective in dibenzothiophene adsorption than benzothiophene. Dibenzothiophene removal is more effective in samples not oxidized, whereas the benzothiophene was almost totally removed in oxidized sample.
A new kind of material, denominated MCM-71, was synthesized and characterized by several complementary techniques: X Ray Diffractometry, textural analysis by nitrogen adsorption, Scanning electronic microscopy and infrared spectroscopy. MCM-71 zeolite was successfully synthesized by hydrothermal synthesis in the presence of triethanolamine. Mordenite phase as impurity was not detected, otherwise quartz was observed. The MCM-71 sample obtained presented a BET surface area of 20 m²/g in the as synthesized form and of 85 m²/g in protonic form. By SEM was observed crystals with rectangular shape with average size of 2 x 0,2 x 0,05 µm and this crystals were agglomerated in spherical particles with average diameter between 14 and 24 µm.
The study consists is the application of zeolites NaX, NaY and A as builder in detergent formulations to eliminate the hardness of water. Therefore, the adsorption of ions Ca+2 and Mg+2 were evaluated, and the effect of the cleaning action of the surfactant sodium dodecil sulfate (SDS) through tests of detergency. The experiments were conducted in bath system (with shaking) and quantification of metals was performed by atomic absorption spectrometry. Zeolite A showed the best results for adsorption of Ca++ and Mg++ with retention rates of around 90 and 70% respectively and acted positively on the action of cleaning the surfactant SDS.
Five samples of natural clays denominated: diatomite, CN-20, CN-29, CN-40 and CN-45 from Aliança Latina LTDA were characterized by differents supplementary techniques such as: XRD, chemical analysis, adsorption N2 measurements, infrared spectroscopy analysis, thermogravimetric analysis. Clays were tested in adsorption of blue methylene. All of isotherms adjust in a model of physics adsorption with formation of multilayers, however in the case of diatomite was a favorable adsorption (type II) and the CNs were a not favorable adsorption (type III). In the case of CNs had flocculation of clay in high concentration of coloring.
This paper deals with an adosrption of sulphur compounds employing zeolites containing zinc. The zeolites employed were commercial NaY and Beta. The zinc was incorporated in three levels: 0.5; 1.0 and 5%. The sulphur compounds studied were benzothiophene and dibenzothiofene. The results showed that both zeolites can be employed for adsorption of benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene. The Zn incorporation (0.5%) promotes an increase in zeolites adsorption ability. The DBT adsorbs more than BT, probably because it strongly interacts with zeolite structure. The BT adsorbs more in NaY than in beta probably because the NaY zeolite has a high intern volume. This is not observed for DBT.
Offretite T zeolite was synthesized using different source of Si (Ludox AS-30, Ludox LS-30 and Aerosil 200 Degussa). The obtained materials were characterized by different complementary techniques: XRD, textural analysis by N2 adsorption, IV, SEM and chemistry analysis. This zeolite has an intermediary structure between offretite and erionite zeolites. In all experiments offretite T phase was obtained. Offretite phase presenting better crystalility are obtained in synthesis with stirring and employing aerosil as silicon source. This zeolite presents a potencial application as catalyst for hydroisodewaxing process.