Abstract AIM The aim of this study was to examine the influence of the type of beverage and the use of thirst sensation to guide fluid replacement in the adolescent judokas. METHODS Nine male judokas aged 10-16 (average age 11,8 ± 4,0 years old) were submitted to a standardized training of 90 minutes. In the first phase of the study, the athletes completed the training with ingestion ad libitum of different beverages: day 1 (water) and after 48 hours, day 2 (sports drink). In the second phase, after 7 days of first stage, the athletes completed the training with ingestion of water or sports drink, guided by thirst sensation. The total volume of liquids ingested (VI) during the training was quantified and the level of dehydration was determined by variation of body weight before and after training (∆W). At the end of each training, the athletes were asked about the training intensity to determine perceived exertion (PE). RESULTS No differences were observed in weight loss (∆W) (range: -0,04 ± 0,4 to -0,69 ± 1,1 %) and perceived exertion (range: 3,2 to 5,0). The use of thirst sensation to guide fluid replacement reduced the total fluid intake when the beverage offered was the sports drink (no thirst vs. thirst sensation, 521,1 ± 290 vs 152,2 ± 187 mL - p=0,006). CONCLUSION The results suggest that fluid replacement guided by thirst sensation can be influenced by the type of beverage offered.
Abstract Purpose: To investigate the fatty acid content of different fat sources and evaluate the effect of them on plasma and hepatic lipids and on the fatty acid profile of the brain tissue of Wistar rats. Methods: Thirty male albino Wistar rats received for 59 days, the following diets: diet added of margarine with low content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA); diet added of margarine with high content of PUFA; diet added of butter; diet added of hydrogenated vegetable fat; diet added of soybean oil. Fatty acid profile of the lipid sources, blood and hepatic lipids fractions and fatty acid profile of the brain tissue were determined. Results: Margarine consumption of provided different responses as to concentrations of blood and hepatic lipid fractions. Intake of butter and hydrogenated increased LDL-c/HDL-c ratio, being the steepest increase promoted by hydrogenated vegetable fat, which also raised LDL-c levels expressively. All fats used in the treatments reduced the cerebral concentration of docosahexaenoic acid when compared to soybean oil (control). Conclusion: The different fat sources commonly consumed by population provided different responses in vivo. This is particularly relevant considering the role of these lipids in the incidence and prevention of cardiovascular diseases.
ABSTRACT Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) is a tuberous root from the Andean region in the South America rich em water, fructooligosaccharides and phenolic compounds, some of which are natural antioxidants and may help prevent the deleterious action of free radicals in the body. The yacon has attracted much attention due to their potential health benefits to humans. In this study the levels of total phenolics, tannins, phenolic acids, and total antioxidant activity were measured in the peel and pulp of yacon tubers both in the fresh and flour forms. The flours of yacon presented higher concentrations of total phenolics and tannins, especially peel flour. The yacon pulp flour stood out as the main source of phenolic acids, mainly caffeic and chlorogenic acid. The total antioxidant activity assessed by DPPH (2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS (2,2′-Azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)) assays was higher in the yacon peel flour. The total antioxidant activity was correlated with the total phenolic content and tannins by the DPPH and ABTS assays. These results suggest that yacon can be used as an alternative food source of phenolic compounds that help prevent degenerative processes caused by oxidative stress, especially in the flours form.
RESUMO Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) é uma raiz tuberosa da região andina na América do Sul, rica em água, frutooligossacarídeos e compostos fenólicos, alguns dos quais são antioxidantes naturais e podem auxiliar a prevenir a ação deletéria dos radicais livres no organismo. O yacon tem atraído muita atenção devido a seus potenciais benefícios de saúde para os seres humanos. Neste estudo, os níveis de fenólicos totais, taninos, ácidos fenólicos e atividade antioxidante total foram mensurados na casca e polpa de túberas de yacon ambas nas formas fresca e de farinha. As farinhas de yacon apresentaram altas concentrações de fenólicos totais e taninos, especialmente a farinha da casca. A farinha da polpa de yacon destacou-se como a principal fonte de ácidos fenólicos, principalmente caféico e ácido clorogênico. A atividade antioxidante total avaliada pelos métodos DPPH (2,2-Difenil-1-picril-hidrazil) and ABTS (2,2′-Azino-bis (3-etilbenzotiazolina-6-ácido sulfônico)) foi maior na farinha de casca de yacon. A atividade antioxidante total foi correlacionada com o conteúdo de fenólicos totais e taninos pelos métodos DPPH e ABTS. Estes resultados sugerem que yacon pode ser usado como uma fonte alimentar alternativa de compostos fenólicos que auxiliam a prevenir processos degenerativos causados pelo estresse oxidativo, especialmente na forma de farinhas.
PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of kefir and banana pulp and skin flours on the serum levels of total cholesterol, HDL-c, LDL-c and triacylglycerols in rats fed cholesterol-rich diet. METHODS: Thirty Male Wistar rats were used. In the first 21 days, the animals were fed purified hypercholesterolemic diets, except the standard group. In the next 21 days, the animals were given modified diets: Group GC: standard diet AIN-93G; Group HIP: hypercholesterolemic diet; Group F: hypercholesterolemic diet added of 1% of banana skin flour and 7% of banana pulp flour; Group Q: hypercholesterolemic diet plus kefir suspension by oral infusion (1.5 ml/animal); Group FQ: hypercholesterolemic diet added of 1% banana skin flour and 7% of banana pulp flour plus kefir suspension (1.5 ml/animal). RESULTS: In spite of the high fiber content, the addition of banana pulp (7%) and skin (1%) flour did not alter the plasma levels of total cholesterol, HDL-c and LDL-c. However, they reduced the TG levels in 22%. Already fermented kefir reduced significantly the levels of VLDL, LDL-c and triacylglycerols, in addition to having increased HDL-c. However, it was not possible to verify the symbiotic effect between both. CONCLUSION: The results reinforce the beneficial effects of kefir in reducing the risks of cardiovascular diseases.
Due to the importance of studies on yacon related to health, its in natura pulp, in natura peel, pulp flour, and peel flour were chemically analyzed in terms of its centesimal composition, specific minerals, total dietary fiber and fractions, pH, total soluble solids, total titratable acidity, tannins, oxalic acid, and nitrate. The polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase enzymatic activities were evaluated for in natura pulp and peel only. Yacon pulp and peel flour presented average yield of 7.94% and 10.86%, respectively. The in natura pulp presented a higher moisture and carboydrate content and lower lipid, protein, total dietary fiber, and ash than those of the peel flour. The same pattern was observed for pulp flour when compared to peel flour. The highest tannin, nitrate, and oxalic acid levels were found in the peel flour, 15,304.5 mg.kg-1, 1,578.3 mg.kg-1, and 7,925.0 mg.kg-1 (wet weight), respectively. The polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase enzymes presented higher enzymatic activity in the yacon peel. Based on the results obtained, it can be said that the yacon and its derivatives are important dietary carbohydrate and mineral sources and contain antinutritional substance contents lower than those harmful to health.
Devido à importância dos estudos com yacon em relação à saúde, foram analisadas quimicamente sua polpa in natura (PY), casca in natura (CY), farinha da polpa (FPY) e casca (FCY), sendo determinados composição centesimal, minerais específicos, fibra alimentar total (FAT) e frações, pH, SST, ATT, taninos, ácido oxálico e nitrato. As atividades enzimáticas de polifenoloxidase (PFO) e peroxidase (PER) foram avaliadas para PY e CY exclusivamente. A FPY e FCY apresentaram rendimento médio de 7,94% e 10,86%, respectivamente. A PY apresentou conteúdos numericamente maiores de umidade e carboidratos e menores de lipídios, proteínas, FAT e cinzas em relação à CY. Foi observado o mesmo para a FPY quando comparada à FCY. Na FCY, foram encontrados os maiores teores de taninos, nitrato e ácido oxálico entre as amostras analisadas, sendo 15.304,5 mg.kg-1, 1578,3 mg.kg-1, 7.925,0 mg.kg-1, respectivamente. As enzimas PFO e PER apresentaram atividades enzimáticas numericamente superiores na CY. Baseando-se nos resultados, pode-se dizer que o yacon e seus derivados são importantes fontes de carboidratos e minerais na dieta, sem riscos de toxicidade.
Food bars are products obtained from the union of a number of components, standing out in the snack category due to their portability attribute with a focus on convenience and health. Utilization of by-products and agroindustrial food waste as ingredients in the making of food bars is highly important due to the utilization of leftovers of marked nutritional and functional value and decrease of the production cost. This work intended to evaluate the chemical and physicochemical aspects of food bars made with the by-products broken rice (BR) and pequi nut (PN), soybean extract residue (SER), and pineapple waste (PW). Distinct proportions of BR: SER respectively were used, amounting to five treatments: 1:0 (A); 3:1 (B); 1:1 (C); 1:3 (D) and 0:1(E) and fixed amounts of the other components. For the statistical analysis, variance analysis and the Tukey test were performed to 5% significance. The moisture, protein, lipid, ash, mineral, and dietary fiber contents were directly increased as the SER was increased and the amount of BR was decreased. However, the opposite was found with both carbohydrates and calories. The soluble solids, pH and water activity values presented increases with the increased soybean extract residue. All the treatments presented slightly acidic pH and water activity bellow 0.6, favoring microbiological safety. In the chemical score, treatment A presented lysine as the limiting aminoacid in relation to the Food and Agriculture Organization - FAO/WHO reference (1990). The food bars can be considered rich in dietary fiber and with considerable nutritional support. Treatments D and E proved better in the set of the variables studied for human consumption.
Barras alimentícias são produtos obtidos a partir da junção de vários componentes, destacando-se na categoria dos snacks em razão do atributo portabilidade com foco em conveniência e saúde. A utilização de subprodutos e de resíduos agroindustriais alimentícios como ingredientes na elaboração de barras alimentícias têm grande importância em decorrencia do aproveitamento de remanescentes de considerado valor nutricional e funcional e diminuição do custo de produção. No trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar aspectos químicos e físico-químicos de barras alimentícias elaboradas com subprodutos quirera de arroz (QR) e castanha de pequi (CP), resíduo de extrato de soja (RES) e resíduo de abacaxi (RA). Utilizaram-se proporções distintas de QA: RES totalizando cinco tratamentos: 1:0 (A); 3:1 (B); 1:1 (C); 1:3 (D) e 0:1(E) e quantidades fixas dos demais componentes. Para análise estatística foram realizadas análise de variância e teste de Tukey, a 5% de significância. Os teores de umidade, proteínas, lipídeos, cinzas, minerais e de fibra alimentar foram estritamente crescentes à medida que aumentava-se o RES e diminuía-se a quantidade de QA. Já, com carboidratos e calorias, observou-se o inverso. Os valores de sólidos solúveis, pH e atividade da água, apresentaram-se crescentes com o aumento de resíduo do extrato de soja. Todos os tratamentos apresentaram pH levemente ácido e atividade da água abaixo de 0,6, podendo favorecer a segurança microbiológica. No escore químico, o tratamento A apresentou a lisina como aminoácido limitante em relação à referência da FAO/WHO (1990). As barras alimentícias podem ser conideradas ricas em fibra alimentar e com considerável aporte nutricional. Os tratamentos D e E apresentaram-se melhores no conjunto das variáveis analisadas para o consumo humano.