Abstract Cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction are a significant complication of chronic Chagas disease, with heart failure, stroke, and sudden death related to disease progression. Thus, understanding the signaling pathways involved in the chagasic cardiac hypertrophy may provide potential targets for pharmacological therapy. Herein, we investigated the implication of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) signaling pathway in triggering hypertrophic phenotype during acute and chronic T. cruzi infection. C57BL/6 mice infected with T. cruzi (Brazil strain) were evaluated for electrocardiographic (ECG) changes, plasma levels of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and activation of signaling pathways involved in cardiac hypertrophy, including FAK and ERK1/2, as well as expression of hypertrophy marker and components of the extracellular matrix in the different stages of T. cruzi infection (60–210 dpi). Heart dysfunction, evidenced by prolonged PR interval and decrease in heart rates in ECG tracing, was associated with high plasma ET-1 level, extracellular matrix remodeling and FAK signaling activation. Upregulation of both FAK tyrosine 397 (FAK-Y397) and serine 910 (FAK-S910) residues phosphorylation as well as ERK1/2 activation, lead to an enhancement of atrial natriuretic peptide gene expression in chronic infection. Our findings highlight FAK-ERK1/2 signaling as a regulator of cardiac hypertrophy in Trypanosoma cruzi infection. Both mechanical stress, induced by cardiac extracellular matrix (ECM) augment and cardiac overload, and ET-1 stimuli orchestrated FAK signaling activation with subsequent activation of the fetal cardiac gene program in the chronic phase of infection, highlighting FAK as an attractive target for Chagas disease therapy.
ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of bacteria isolated from the eyes of dogs with keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS). We evaluated 65 dogs diagnosed with KCS and 30 healthy dogs (Control Group). Conjunctival swab samples were collected after KCS was diagnosed. Microbiological examinations were performed, including aerobic culture, antimicrobial susceptibility testing and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determination for chloramphenicol, tobramycin, ofloxacin and moxifloxacin. MICs of the fifteen most resistant strains of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (Staphylococcus intermedius Group, SIG) and the fifteen most resistant strains of gram-negative bacteria were determined. By percentage, the microorganisms exhibited the highest susceptibility to polymyxin B, tobramycin and chloramphenicol and the lowest to tetracycline. Three multi-drug-resistant strains of SIG were detected: one displayed isolated susceptibility to cefazolin, another to vancomycin, and another to polymyxin B and amikacin. The species of bacteria isolated from the eyes of dogs with KCS presented variable susceptibility to the antibiotics tested. We found evidence of the emergence of quinolone-resistant strains of SIG and further evidence of increased ocular prevalence. These findings reinforce the need to identify the bacteria involved and their antimicrobial susceptibility profile, as secondary infections can serve as exacerbating and perpetuating factors in KCS.
RESUMO: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o perfil de susceptibilidade antimicrobiana de bactérias isoladas de olhos de cães com ceratoconjuntivite seca (CCS). Foram avaliados 65 cães com diagnóstico de CCS e 30 cães saudáveis (Grupo Controle). Depois do diagnosticado de CCS, suabes conjuntivais foram coletados. Exames microbiológicos foram realizados, incluindo cultura aeróbia, teste de susceptibilidade antimicrobiana e determinação da concentração inibitória mínima (CIM) para cloranfenicol, tobramicina, ofloxacina e moxifloxacina. Para determinar a CIM, foram selecionadas as quinze cepas mais resistentes de Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (Staphylococcus intermedius Group-SIG) e as quinze cepas mais resistentes de bactérias gram-negativas. Os microrganismos apresentaram maior suscetibilidade percentual à polimixina B, tobramicina e cloranfenicol e menor suscetibilidade à tetraciclina. Três cepas de SIG resistentes a múltiplos medicamentos foram detectadas, do quais um demonstrou suscetibilidade isolada à cefazolina, outro à vancomicina e outro à polimixina B e à amicacina. As espécies de bactérias isoladas dos olhos de cães com CCS apresentaram suscetibilidade variável aos antibióticos testados. Encontramos evidências do surgimento de cepas resistentes à quinolona de S. pseudintermedius e outras evidências de aumento da prevalência ocular. Esses achados reforçam a necessidade de identificar as bactérias envolvidas e seu perfil de susceptibilidade aos antimicrobianos, pois as infecções secundárias podem servir como fatores exacerbantes e perpetuantes na CCS.