ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B and C virus (HBV and HCV) are the two most common infections among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. OBJECTIVE: To identify the frequency of HIV subtypes and HCV genotypes in HIV-coinfected patients. METHODS: A cross-sectional and retrospective study was carried out into two reference centers in Southern Brazil between January 1, 2002 and June 30, 2016. The Abbott Real Time HCV Genotype II system was used for routine diagnostics to determine the HCV genotype based on dual-target real-time PCR. Proviral HIV-1 RNA was extracted from serum samples and fragments of the pol gene were generated by PCR. The HIV-1 PT and RT gene sequences were submitted to Maximum Likelihood Phylogenetic analysis by collecting reference sequences from the HIV-1 group M subtype of the Los Alamos database. RESULTS: During the study period, 3340 patients with HIV were diagnosed at both referral centers, of which 4.97% (166/3340) had HBV and/or HCV coinfection. Seroprevalence of HIV-HBV, HIV-HCV and HIV-HBV-HCV was 37.4%, 58.4%, and 4.2%, respectively. HIV-HCV-coinfected patients had a lower median nadir CD4+ T-cell count when compared to HIV-HBV-coinfected patients (P=0.01). Among those coinfected with HCV, HCV-1 (HCV-1) and HCV-3 (HCV-3) genotypes were the most prevalent, being detected in 73.8% and 21.4%, respectively. Among the HCV-1 coinfected patients, 79.3% and 20.1% had subtypes 1a and 1b, respectively. HIV subtype B was the most prevalent in HIV-coinfected patients. There was no significant difference regarding nadir CD4+ T-cell count and HIV viral load when compared to coinfected with HCV-1 with HCV-3, as well as those co-infected with HCV-1a with HCV-1b. CONCLUSION: In the present study, a higher frequency of subtype B of HIV and HCV-1 were found in HIV-coinfected patients. Further larger-scale and long-term studies are needed to better understand the effect of HCV genotypes in HIV-infected patients.
RESUMO CONTEXTO: Os vírus das hepatites B e C (VHB e VHC) são os causadores das duas infecções mais comuns entre os pacientes infectados pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV). OBJETIVO: Identificar a frequência dos subtipos do HIV e genótipos de VHC em pacientes coinfectados com HIV. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal e retrospectivo realizado em dois centros de referência do Sul do Brasil, entre 1º de janeiro de 2002 e 30 de junho de 2016. O sistema Abbott Real Time HCV Genótipo II foi utilizado para diagnósticos de rotina para determinar o genótipo do HCV com base na PCR em tempo real de duplo alvo. O RNA viral do HIV-1 foi extraído de amostras de soro e fragmentos do gene pol foram obtidos por PCR. As sequências do gene PT e RT do HIV-1 foram submetidas à análise filogenética por máxima verossimilhança através da coleta de sequências de referência do subtipo M do grupo HIV-1 da base de dados Los Alamos. RESULTADOS: Durante o período do estudo, 3340 pacientes foram diagnosticados com HIV em ambos os centros de referência, dos quais 4,97% (166/3340) possuíam coinfecção com HBV e/ou HCV. A soroprevalência de HIV-HBV, HIV-HCV e HIV-HBV-HCV foi de 37,4%, 58,4% e 4,2%, respectivamente. Pacientes HIV-VHC possuíam menor nadir de células T CD4+ quando comparados aos pacientes HIV-VHB (P=0,01). Entre os pacientes HIV-VHC, os genótipos VHC-1 e VHC-3 foram os mais prevalentes, sendo encontrados em 73,8% e 21,4%, respectivamente. Entre os coinfectados com VHC-1, 79,3% e 20,1% tinham subtipos 1a e 1b, respectivamente. O subtipo B do HIV foi o mais prevalente em pacientes coinfectados. Não houve diferença significativa em relação nadir de células T CD4+ e carga viral do HIV quando comparadas os coinfectados com o VHC-1 com o VHC-3, assim como, os coinfectados com HCV-1a quando comparados com o HCV-1b. CONCLUSÃO: No presente estudo, uma maior frequência do subtipo B do HIV e do VHC-1 foram encontrados em pacientes coinfectados com HIV. Outros estudos em larga escala e a longo prazo são necessários para entender melhor o efeito dos genótipos do HCV em pacientes infectados pelo HIV.
American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is an endemic disease caused by Leishmania parasites. The ACL diagnosis is commonly accomplished by parasitological and immunological methods. The objective of this work was to evaluate the enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for ACL laboratorial diagnosis. IgG antibodies against Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis promastigotes were researched. For the method standardization 240 sera were used: 72 from patients with positive parasitological diagnosis, 38 from normal individuals and 113 from individuals with other pathologies. The sensibility was 93% and the specificity was 70%. Regarding diagnosis, EIA showed 97% positivity in patients with ACL and 97% negativity in patients with other cutaneous lesions. The EIA presented a good performance when used for diagnosis, thus, it may become an important tool for it and for further ACL epidemiological studies in endemic areas.