Abstract This paper presents a methodology for the conceptual design of a Maneuver Load Control system taking into account the airframe flexibility. The system, when switched on, is able to minimize the bending moment augmentation at a wing station near the wing root during an unsteady longitudinal maneuver. The reduction of the incremental wing bending moment due to maneuvers can lead to benefits such as improved pay-loads/gross weight capabilities and/or extended structural fatigue life. The maneuver is performed by following a desired vertical load factor law with elevators deflections, starting from the trim equilibrium in level flight. The system observes load factor and structural bending through accelerometers and calibrated strain sensors and then sends signals to a computer that symmetrically actuates ailerons for reducing the structural bending and elevators for compensating the perturbation to the longitudinal equilibrium. The major limit of this kind of systems appears when it has to be installed on commercial transport aircraft for reduced OEW or augmented wing aspect-ratio. In this case extensive RAMS analyses and high redundancy of the MLC related sub-systems are required by the Certification Authority. Otherwise the structural design must be performed at system off. Thus the unique actual benefit to be gained from the adoption of a MLC system on a commercial transport is the fatigue life extension. An application to a business aircraft responding to the EASA Certification Specifications, Part 25, has been performed. The aircraft used for the numerical application is considered only as a test case-study. Most of design and analysis considerations are applicable also to other aircraft, such as unmanned or military ones, although some design requirements can be clearly different. The estimation of the fatigue life extension of a structural joint (wing lower skin-stringer), located close to the wing root, has been estimated by showing the expected benefit to be gained from the adoption of such a maneuvering load control system.
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an important cause of economic losses worldwide. E2 is an immunodominant protein and a promising candidate to develop subunit vaccines. To improve its immunogenicity, a truncated E2 (tE2) was fused to a single chain antibody named APCH, which targets to antigen-presenting cells. APCH-tE2 and tE2 proteins were expressed in the baculovirus system and their immunogenicity was firstly compared in guinea pigs. APCH-tE2 vaccine was the best one to evoke a humoral response, and for this reason, it was selected for a cattle vaccination experiment. All the bovines immunized with 1.5 µg of APCH-tE2 developed high levels of neutralizing antibodies against BVDV up to a year post-immunization, demonstrating its significant potential as a subunit vaccine. This novel vaccine is undergoing scale-up and was transferred to the private sector. Nowadays, it is being evaluated for registration as the first Argentinean subunit vaccine for cattle.
El virus de la diarrea viral bovina (BVDV) es causante de importantes pérdidas económicas a nivel mundial. La proteína E2 es la inmunodominante del virus y es la candidata para desarrollar vacunas de subunidad. Para mejorar su inmunogenicidad, una versión truncada de la E2 (tE2) se fusionó a un anticuerpo de cadena simple (APCH), que se dirige a las células presentadoras de antígeno. Se expresaron las proteínas APCH-tE2 y tE2 en el sistema de baculovirus y su inmunogenicidad fue evaluada y comparada en cobayos; la proteína APCH-tE2 fue la que indujo la mejor respuesta humoral. Por dicha razón se la evaluó en bovinos utilizando 1,5 µg de antígeno. Los animales presentaron altos títulos de anticuerpos neutralizantes contra BVDV hasta un año posinmunización. Esta nueva vacuna está en proceso de escalado y se transfirió al sector privado. Actualmente se está evaluando para su registro como la primera vacuna argentina de subunidad para bovinos.
INTRODUÇÃO: A perda auditiva neurossensorial bilateral simétrica resultante do tratamento oncológico é subestimada, pois os pacientes têm a detecção auditiva preservada, relatando queixa em determinadas situações, ou a não compreensão de parte da mensagem. OBJETIVO: Investigar quais as frequências audiométricas acometidas são responsáveis pela presença de queixa auditiva. MÉTODO: Estudo prospectivo avaliando 200 pacientes com câncer na infância fora de tratamento oncológico há no mínimo 8 anos, com idade média ao diagnóstico de 6,21 anos (4,71). Foi aplicada anamnese para investigar a presença de queixa auditiva e realizada audiometria tonal limiar. Para verificar a associação entre queixa e perda auditiva, foi empregado o teste exato de Fisher, com um erro a=5%. Os pacientes foram divididos em: audição normal, perda auditiva em 8kHz, perda em 6-8kHz, perda em 4-8kHz, perda em 2-8kHz e perda em <1-8kHz. RESULTADOS: Encontramos 125 pacientes com audição normal, 10 apresentaram queixa auditiva. Entre os pacientes com perda auditiva, 16 apresentaram perda somente em 8kHz, e 1 com queixa; 22 com perda em 6-8kHz, sendo 3 com queixa; 16 com perda em 4-8kHz, destes 10 com queixa; 15 com perda 2-8kHz, sendo 14 com queixa e 6 com perda em <1-8kHz todos com queixa. Houve relação estatisticamente significante entre perda e queixa auditiva (p<0.001), quando a frequência de 4kHz foi envolvida. CONCLUSÃO: Quanto maior o número de frequências acometidas maior a ocorrência de queixa auditiva, sobretudo quando as frequências da fala estão envolvidas, sendo que o acometimento de 4kHz já determina o aparecimento das queixas.
INTRODUCTION: The neurosensory bilateral simetric hearing loss resulting of the oncological treatment is underestimated, because the patients has the hearing detection preserved, reporting complaints in determined situation, or the not comprehension of part of the message. OBJECTIVE: Investigate which are the audiometric frequencies affected are the responsible by the presence of hearing complaints. METHOD: Prospective study evaluating 200 patients with cancer in the childhood out of the oncological treatment in at least 8 years, with average age to the diagnosis of 6,21 years (4,71). Was applied anamnesis to investigate the presence of hearing complaints and performed a tonal threshold audiometry. To check the association between the complaint and the hearing loss, was applied the Exact test of Fisher, with one error a=5%, the patients were split into: normal hearing, hearing loss in 8kHz, loss in 6-8 kHz, loss in 4-8 kHz, loss in 2-8 kHz and loss in < 1-8 kHz. RESULTS: We found 125 patients with hearing loss, 10 presented hearing complaints. Between the patients with hearing loss, 16 presented loss only at 8kHz, and 1 with complaint; 22 with loss in 6-8 kHz, being 3 with complaint; 16 with loss in 4-8 kHz, from them 10 with complaint; 15 with loss 2-8 kHz, being 14 with complaint and 6 with loss in < 1-8 kHz all with complaints. There were a significant relationship between the loss and hearing complaint (p<0,001), when the frequency of 4 kHz was involved. CONCLUSION: The bigger the number of affected frequencies the bigger the occurrence of hearing complaint, most of all when the speech frequencies are involved, and the involvement of 4 kHz already determines the appearing of the complaints.
A cisplatina é um antineoplásico muito utilizado no tratamento de diferentes neoplasias, porém quando utilizada em doses acima de 360mg/m² pode causar ototoxicidade. Esta produz lesões cocleares que resultam em perda auditiva. Existem critérios que visam identificar e quantificar as perdas auditivas. OBJETIVO: Descrever as características das classificações e identificar implicações e aplicações de cada uma, dentro das necessidades do acompanhamento ao paciente oncológico. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Avaliamos 31 pacientes pré e pós-tratamento quimioterápico. Classificamos as perdas auditivas de acordo com os critérios e verificamos a sensibilidade e especificidade de cada um. RESULTADO: Houve grande variabilidade na detecção das alterações auditivas (de 29% a 61%). Somente 4 dos 31 indivíduos com alterações auditivas no exame pós-tratamento foram identificados por todos os critérios. Por vezes o indivíduo portador de perda auditiva era classificado com normal por algum critério. Dos 31 indivíduos, 18 apresentaram PTA normal no exame pós-tratamento. CONCLUSÃO: Nenhum dos critérios considera a queixa do paciente. Os critérios descritos mostraram inadequações para descrever as alterações auditivas encontradas, fazendo-se necessária a descrição de informações adicionais, para que o médico compreendesse a natureza da perda auditiva. É importante o refinamento desses instrumentos para melhor compreensão e tratamento dos pacientes oncológicos, assim como de sua qualidade de vida.
Cisplatin is used frequently as an antineoplastic drug in the treatment of many different cancers. However, when used in doses over 360mg/m², ototoxicity may ensue, resulting in loss of hearing. Criteria for identifying and quantifying hearing loss have been devised. AIM: To describe the features of different hearing loss classification systems and to identify their implications and use in oncologic patients. METHOD: Hearing loss was classified in 31 patients before and after chemotherapy, according to different criteria, assessing the sensitivity and specificity of each classification system. RESULTS: Hearing loss results were highly variable (ranging from 29% to 61%). Only 4 of 31 subjects with post-therapy hearing loss were identified by all the methods. A few subjects with hearing loss were classified as normal hearing in some of the criteria. A normal PTA was found in 18 of 31 subjects in the post-treatment evaluation. CONCLUSION: None of the criteria assesses the complaints of patients. The criteria described in this study were inadequate to identify hearing loss following chemotherapy, requiring additional information for physicians to better understand the hearing losses and their implications for the quality of life of patients.
Seeking the identification of Angiostrongylus cantonensis as a potential etiological agent of three clinical cases of eosinophilic meningitis, mollusc specimens were collected in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. The snails were identified as Sarasinula marginata (45 specimens), Subulina octona (157), Achatina fulica (45) and Bradybaena similaris (23). Larvae obtained were submitted to polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism diagnosis. Their genetic profile were corresponded to A. cantonensis. Rattus norvegicus experimentally infected with third-stage larvae, developed menigoencephalitis, and parasites became sexually mature in the lungs. Additionally, larvae obtained from A. fulica snails, from São Vicente, state of São Paulo, also showed genetic profiles of this nematode. This is the first record of Brazilian molluscs infected with this nematode species.