Abstract This study evaluated the effects of three chemical pretreatments of biomass sorghum (BS): dilute alkaline (PTA1 and PTA2), dilute acid (PTB1 and PTB2) and alkaline hydrogen peroxide (PTC1 and PTC2) in the enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol production. Among the six investigated conditions, the pretreatment with 7.36% H2O2 (PTC2) was the most efficient in the lignin removal and preservation of the polysaccharide fraction. After the enzymatic hydrolysis, increases in the glucose and xylose concentrations were observed in the pretreated BS hydrolysates, mainly in PTB1 and PTC1. All the hydrolysates obtained low concentrations of inhibitors. In the alcoholic fermentations with Pichia stiptis, the greatest ethanol yield was obtained in PTB1 hydrolysate (3.84 g L-1), corresponding to 16.15% of yield. The highest ethanol yield in PTB1 hydrolysate can be justified by the maximum concentration of xylose obtained in this hydrolysate, demonstrating the potential of P. stiptis in the fermentation of pentose to ethanol. The results indicated that biomass sorghum is an alternative lignocellulose source with potential for the production of second generation ethanol, opening up prospects for additional studies.
Vegetable fibres have been shown to be promising as reinforcement in composites because they are abundant, renewable, and low cost. However, the fibre-matrix interaction can be damaged by dimensional variation of vegetable fibres, due to moisture variations. The alkaline medium of cementitious matrix is aggressive to natural fibres, compromising their durability. The aim of this study was to modify sisal fibres (Agave sisalana) by esterification with acyl chlorides to improve their stability and compatibility with the cementitious matrix in order to optimize the performance and durability of composites. The esterified fibres were characterized by moisture absorption, tensile tests, Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and the composites by bending tests and SEM. The results showed that esterification changed both the morphology and physical properties of sisal fibres. The composite produced using esterified fibres with octanoyl chloride maintained the properties of 28 to 90 days of age, which represented an improvement in the fibre stability compared to natural fibre composite.
Flaxseed gum (FG)-based films were developed with the addition of glycerol as a plasticizer and glutaraldehyde as a crosslinking agent. HCl was added to improve crosslinking and decrease the hydrophilicity of the matrix. Different cellulose nanocrystal (CN) amounts were used as reinforcements in the optimum FG formulation. The crosslinking process at pH 3.5 led to a lower solubility of FG in water (from 100% to 53%) and an increase in thermal stability (from 160 ºC to 209 ºC). FTIR analysis confirmed a reduction in the -OH band due to crosslinking between the hydroxyl groups of FG. A diffuse diffraction pattern was observed for all FG films. The addition of 4% w/w of CN contributed to reduction of water solubility (from 53% to 20.8%) and absorption (from 21.9% to 6.8%). Finally, an improvement was observed in the tensile mechanical properties in the nanocomposites, showing satisfactory results for the proposed formulations, mainly with 8% w/w of CN added to the matrix. Overall, this study demonstrated that FG/CN nanocomposites are promising materials to be use as a sustainable biopolymer for application as bioplastics.
Abstract This paper discusses the esterification of sponge gourd fibres (Luffa cilyndrica) to reinforce the cementitious matrix. The esterification reactions were performed with the modifying agents octanoyl chloride, lauroyl chloride and stearoyl chloride, using toluene as solvent and pyridine as catalyst. The fibres were characterised through tensile tests, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and moisture absorption. Composites were produced with untreated and treated fibres with octanoyl chloride, which yielded the best results, with a 65% reduction in moisture absorption, 40% in tensile strength and 67% increase in the elasticity modulus. The results of the composites bending test indicated that a toughness of 0.70 kJ/m2 did not change significantly and there was an increase of about 20% in the rupture modulus (6.64 MPa) and the elasticity modulus (15.10 GPa) of the composites reinforced with treated fibres compared with those reinforced with untreated fibres. The best mechanical properties of the composites with treated fibres indicate that the proposed treatment may have improved the performance of sponge gourd fibres as a reinforcement of the cementitious matrix.
Resumo Este trabalho apresenta estudo da esterificação de fibras de bucha vegetal (Luffa cilyndrica) para verificar o desempenho delas na matriz cimentícia. As reações de esterificação foram realizadas com os agentes modificadores cloreto de octanoíla, cloreto de lauroíla e cloreto de estearoil, usando tolueno como solvente e piridina como catalisador. As fibras foram caracterizadas por ensaios de tração direta, microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV) e absorção de umidade. Foram produzidos compósitos com as fibras sem tratamento e tratadas com cloreto de octanoíla, tendo estas apresentado os melhores resultados, com redução de 65% na absorção de umidade, 40% na resistência à tração, e aumento de 67% no módulo de elasticidade. Os resultados do ensaio de flexão dos compósitos indicaram que a tenacidade da ordem de 0,70 kJ/m2 não se alterou significativamente e que houve aumento de cerca de 20% no módulo de ruptura (6,64 MPa) e no módulo de elasticidade (15,10 GPa) dos compósitos reforçados com as fibras modificadas em relação aos reforçados com as fibras sem tratamento. As melhores propriedades mecânicas do compósito com as fibras tratadas indicam que o tratamento proposto pode ter melhorado o desempenho das fibras vegetais como reforço da matriz cimentícia.
Abstract This study evaluated the effects of the incorporation of a new additive to asphalt cement oil (CAP). A polyol product was obtained through the oxypropylation reaction of sugarcane bagasse. This polyol was polymerised with pyromellitic anhydride in order to obtain a polyester (BCP) to test its suitability in terms of the material properties to be applied as additives. FTIR spectra of the polymerised material (BCP) confirmed the occurrence of chemical modification due to the appearance of a new band at 1750 cm-1, characteristic of ester groups. The TGA data showed that the BCP product had higher thermal stability than the polyol. According to the softening point and elastic recovery tests, the incorporation of 11% and 16% w/w BCP in conventional CAP met the specifications of regulatory standards.
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVES: Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) requires strict daily compliance with oral medication and regular blood and bone marrow control tests. The objective was to evaluate CML patients' perceptions about the disease, their access to information regarding the diagnosis, monitoring and treatment, adverse effects and associations of these variables with patients' demographics, region and healthcare access. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective cross-sectional study among CML patients registered with the Brazilian Lymphoma and Leukemia Association (ABRALE). METHODS: CML patients receiving treatment through the public healthcare system were interviewed by telephone. RESULTS: Among 1,102 patients interviewed, the symptoms most frequently leading them to seek medical care were weakness or fatigue. One third were diagnosed by means of routine tests. The time that elapsed between first symptoms and seeking medical care was 42.28 ± 154.21 days. Most patients had been tested at least once for Philadelphia chromosome, but 43.2% did not know the results. 64.8% had had polymerase chain reaction testing for the BCR/ABL gene every three months. 47% believed that CML could be controlled, but 33.1% believed that there was no treatment. About 24% reported occasionally stopping their medication. Imatinib was associated with nausea, cramps and muscle pain. Self-reported treatment adherence was significantly associated with normalized blood count, and positively associated with imatinib. CONCLUSIONS: There is a lack of information or understanding about disease monitoring tools among Brazilian CML patients; they are diagnosed quickly and have good access to treatment. Correct comprehension of CML control tools is impaired in Brazilian patients.
CONTEXTO E OBJETIVOS: Leucemia mieloide crônica (CML) exige estrita adesão à medicação oral e ao monitoramento do sangue e da medula. O objetivo foi avaliar percepções de pacientes com leucemia mieloide crônica (LMC) sobre a doença, seu acesso à informação sobre diagnóstico, monitoramento e tratamento, efeitos adversos e a associação destes com dados demográficos, geográficos e de acesso a tratamento. DESENHO E LOCAL: Estudo prospectivo transversal realizado com pacientes de LMC cadastrados na Associação Brasileira de Leucemia e Linfoma (Abrale). MÉTODOS: Pacientes com LMC recebendo tratamento do sistema público de saúde foram entrevistados por telefone. RESULTADOS: Entre os 1.102 pacientes entrevistados, os sintomas mais frequentemente levando à busca de consulta foram fraqueza e fadiga. Um terço foi diagnosticado por exames de rotina. O tempo entre sintoma inicial e procura por ajuda foi de 42,28 ± 154,21 dias. A maioria foi testada pelo menos uma vez para o cromossomo Filadélfia, mas 43,2% não sabiam os resultados. 64,8% fizeram exame de reação em cadeia da polimerase para o gene BCR/ABL a cada três meses. 47% acreditavam que LMC pode ser controlada, mas 33,1% acham que não há tratamento. Cerca de 24% disseram que ocasionalmente interrompem o tratamento. Imatinibe associou-se com náusea, câimbra e dor muscular. Aderência auto-reportada associou-se significativamente com hemograma normal e positivamente com uso de imatinibe. CONCLUSÕES: Falta informação ou compreensão sobre monitoramento entre pacientes com LMC; eles recebem diagnóstico rapidamente e têm bom acesso ao tratamento. A correta compreensão das ferramentas de controle em LMC está prejudicada entre eles.
Bacterial cellulose produced from Gluconacetobacter xilinus was used to produce cellulose nanocrystals by sulfuric acid hydrolysis. Hydrolysis was performed with 64% sulfuric acid at 50 ºC with the hydrolysis time ranging between 5 and 90 min. The production of nanocrystals was observed to have size distributions that were dependent on hydrolysis times up to 10 min, after which time the suspensions showed distributions closer in size. Results from thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction showed that the amorphous cellulose was removed, leaving only the crystalline portion. Self-supported films were formed from the suspension of nanocrystals and had iridescence characteristics. The films were characterized by microscopy measures and specular reflectance.
In this work, the effects of incorporating cellulose nanocrystals from soy hulls (WSH30) on the mechanical, thermal, and barrier properties of methylcellulose (MC) nanocomposites were evaluated. MC/WSH30 nanocomposite films with different filler levels (2, 4, 6, 8, and 10%) were prepared by casting. Compared to neat MC film, improvements in the mechanical and barrier properties were observed, while thermal stability was retained. The improved mechanical properties of nanocomposites prepared may be attributed to mechanical percolation of WSH30, formation of a continuous network of WSH30 linked by hydrogen interactions and a close association between filler and matrix.
Salina de Ambargasta is a playa system located at the middle latitude of Argentina (29°S; 64°W). Two sedimentary cores retrieved at the eastern border (AB-1) and the central area of the salina (AB-2) were studied using a multi-proxy approach, an actualistic sedimentary model and radiocarbon dates allowed reconstructing the paleohydrological history of the Salina de Ambargasta since the late Pleistocene. The paleoenvironmental reconstruction for the last ca. 45,000 years to the present suggests six main environmental stages: 1) between 44,700 and 39,600 cal. year BP, a dry period is represented by the development of a capillary mudflat; 2) between ca. 39,600 and 26,700 cal. year BP a more humid period is recorded by lacustrine facies with carbonate and sulfateprecipitation; 3) between ca. 26,700 and 23,600 cal. year BP occurs the most humid phase in Ambargasta, characterized by the sedimentation in an ephemeral sulfate lake, relatively deep, enriched with microbial mats and fringed by mudflats; 4) between 23,600 and 18,500 cal. year BP, a change to drier conditions with humid pulses is evidenced by the development of saline mudflats alternating with ephemeral lakes and associated with mudflats in the supralittoral areas; 5) between 18,500 and 8,600 cal. year BP a drier period is identified by the dominance of capillary and saline mudflats, and 6) since 8,600 cal. year BP to the present the most negative hydrological balance is recorded in the saline system, represented by an expansion of capillary mudflats The control of the hydrological balance in the Salina de Ambargasta is mostly associated with the variation of the South America Monsoon-like System. Thus, the record presented here allows us to provide new clues in order to decipherformerfluctuations of this important driver of the climatic system of South America since the late Pleistocene.
La Salina de Ambargasta es un sistema playa localizado a latitudes medias de Argentina (29°S; 64°W). El estudio de dos testigos sedimentarios, AB-1 (borde este de la salina) y AB-2 (área central), efectuado mediante un enfoque de multi-indicadores ambientales, la aplicación de un modelo sedimentario análogo y edades radiocarbónicas, permitió reconstruir la historia paleohidrológica de la salina de Ambargasta a partir del Pleistoceno tardío. La reconstrucción paleoambiental de los últimos ca. 45,000 años hasta el presente, indica seis estadios ambientales principales: 1) entre 44,700 y 39,600 años cal. AP, un intervalo seco está representado por el desarrollo de una planicie fangosa capilar; 2) entre 39,600 y 26,700 años cal. AP, un período más húmedo es registrado por facies lacustres con precipitación carbonática y sulfatada; 3) entre 26,700y 23,600 años cal. AP ocurre la fase más húmeda en Ambargasta, caracterizada por la sedimentación en una laguna efímera sulfatada, relativamente profunda, rica en tapices microbianos y marginada por planicies fangosas; 4) entre 23,600y 18,500 años cal. AP se presenta un cambio a condiciones más secas con pulsos húmedos intercalados, evidenciado por el desarrollo de planicies fangosas salinas que alternan con lagunas efímeras, y planicies fangosas capilares en las zonas supralitorales; 5) entre 18,500y 8,600 años cal. AP se identifica un intervalo más seco caracterizado por el dominio de planicies fangosas salinas y capilares, y 6) desde los 8,600 años cal. AP al presente se registra el balance hídrico más negativo en el sistema salino representado por una expansión de las planicies fangosas capilares. El control del balance hidrológico en la Salina de Ambargasta está vinculado con la variación del Sistema de tipo Monzónico Sudamericano, por lo cual la reconstrucción efectuada desde el Pleistoceno tardío permite aportar nuevas claves para comprender las fluctuaciones pasadas de este importante forzante del sistema climático de Sudamérica.
Methylcellulose was produced from the fibers of Mangifera indica L. Ubá mango seeds. MCD and MCI methylcellulose samples were made by heterogeneous methylation, using dimethyl sulfate and iodomethane as alkylating agents, respectively. The materials produced were characterized for their thermal properties (DSC and TGA), crystallinity (XRD) and Degree of Substitution (DS) in the chemical route. The cellulose derivatives were employed as mortar additive in order to improve mortar workability and adhesion to the substrate. These properties were evaluated by means of the consistency index (CI) and bond tensile strength (TS) tests. The methylcellulose (MCD and MCI) samples had CI increased by 27.75 and 71.54% and TS increased by 23.33 and 29.78%, respectively, in comparison to the reference sample. Therefore, the polymers can be used to produce adhesive mortars.
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the prevalence, severity and functional interference of movement disorders (MD) secondary to chronic use of cyclosporine A (CsA). METHOD: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 60 patients (58.3% male) with mean age 23.1 (3-75) years, followed at the Bone Marrow Transplantation Service of the Hospital de Clínicas of the Federal University of Paraná, Brazil, taking CsA for at least six months. Our protocol included clinical data, assessment of functional interference of symptoms and neurological examination including observation and grading of MD. RESULTS: Eight (13.3%) subjects reported the presence of tremor at the moment of interview and 29 (48.3%) recalled this symptom at some point during treatment. Neurological examination identified 14 (23.3%) subjects with MD: upper limb symmetric action tremor in 13 (21.6%) and parkinsonism (rigidity and bradykinesia) in 1 (1.7%). No other MD was detected. The mean scores indicated mild clinical signs in all cases. Symptoms were considered subjectively mild with no functional interference. CONCLUSION: Almost one quarter of patients using CsA chronically presented MD, almost always mild and transitory action tremor, with minimal interference on daily living activities, not requiring any form of intervention in the majority of cases.
OBJETIVO: Analisar a prevalência, gravidade e interferência funcional de transtornos do movimento (TM) secundários ao uso crônico de ciclosporina A (CsA). MÉTODO: Realizamos um estudo transversal em 60 pacientes (58.3% do sexo masculino) com idade média de 23.1 (3-75) anos, acompanhados pelo Serviço de Transplante de Medula Óssea do Hospital de Clínicas da Universidade Federal do Paraná, usando CsA por pelo menos seis meses. A avaliação incluiu dados clínicos, interferência funcional de possíveis sintomas e exame neurológico incluindo observação e graduação de TM. RESULTADOS: Oito (13.3%) entrevistados relataram tremor no momento da entrevista e 29 (48.3%) em alguma fase do tratamento. O exame neurológico identificou 14 (23.3%) pacientes com TM: 13 (21.6%) tremor de ação simétrico de membros superiores e em 1 (1.7%) parkinsonismo (rigidez e bradicinesia). Nenhum outro TM foi detectado. Os escores médios indicaram quadros leves em todos os casos. Os sintomas foram também considerados subjetivamente leves e sem interferência funcional. CONCLUSÃO: Quase um quarto dos pacientes usando CsA cronicamente apresenta TM, quase sempre tremor de ação leve e transitório, interferindo pouco funcionalmente, não requerendo intervenção na maioria dos casos.