ABSTRACT The difficulty in the powder reuse favors the study of materials in the form of thin films. ZnO based films have high photocatalytic potential. In this work, ZnO:xSm3+ (x = 0, 1, 2 and 4 %mol) thin films were prepared by spin coating method. The resins obtained to manufacture the thin films were prepared by complex polymerization method. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and spectroscopy UV-Vis. XRD patterns indicate that doping with 4%Sm forms Sm2O3 as the secondary phase. FE-SEM images of the cross section of thin films indicated a uniform thickness ranging from 354 to 367 nm between samples. The incorporation of Sm3+ ions in the ZnO lattice increases the Egap of the films. The photocatalytic performance of the films was tested with the photodegradation of methylene blue dye. Pure ZnO and ZnO:1%Sm3+ exhibited the best activity in the photodegradation. Thin films of pure ZnO exhibit the best photocatalytic results for the first cycle, but considerably reduce their efficiency with reuse. Sm3+ incorporation, without secondary phase formation, was efficient for the maintenance of the photocatalytic property after 3 cycles.
ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the thermal profile of "caipira " typefurnaces, used by the red ceramic industry in Parelhas, region of Seridó-RN, in order to suggest structural interventions that may cooperate with the increase of the products productivity and quality, optimize wood consumption and reduce losses during the burning process. The study was conducted in the Esperança brickyard located in Parelhas-RN, Brazil. Four treatments were conducted with three replications, and clay was the parameter used as a reference to distinguish treatments. The wood quantity, quality of tile and burning time were monitored. Temperature measurements were made at 15 points in the surface of the burning charge into the furnace, and the temperatures were taken every 30 minutes, from the preheating to the end of the burning process, using a laser pyrometer The data showed that the wood presented density with no significant difference between results, humidity according to allowed standards and heterogeneous consumption, while clay had little linear retraction when submitted to fire and the furnace had heterogeneous thermal profile. The wire parameter, used as reference for the burning control, was significant, although with different oscillations, being the reason why it should not be the only criterion to the finalization of the burning process. The furnace central part was the area that reached higher temperatures and more evenly, with the highest concentration of top quality products; the ideal temperature curve was treatment 1, which obtained average of 18.66% of top quality product, with temperature ranging from 100 to 400 °C.
RESUMO Este trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar o perfil térmico de fornos tipo "caipira" utilizados pelo setor de cerâmica vermelha em Parelhas, na região do Seridó, RN, visando propor intervenções estruturais que possam colaborar para aumentar a produtividade e qualidade dos produtos, otimizar o consumo de madeira e mitigar as perdas durante o processo de queima. O trabalho foi desenvolvido na Cerâmica Esperança, na cidade de Parelhas, RN. Foram realizados quatro tratamentos com três repetições, sendo a argila o parâmetro utilizado como referência para distinguir os tratamentos. Foram monitorados a quantidade da lenha, a qualidade da telha e o tempo de cada queima. Foram aferidas temperaturas em 15 pontos marcados na superfície da carga enfornada, em intervalos de 30 min a partir do pré-aquecimento até o final da queima, utilizando um pirômetro de mira a laser. Os resultados indicaram que a madeira utilizada como lenha apresentou densidade sem diferença significativa entre os tratamentos, umidade dentro dos padrões permitidos e consumo heterogêneo, enquanto a argila teve pouca retração linear quando submetida ao fogo e o forno, perfil térmico heterogêneo. O parâmetro do fio, que é utilizado como referência para o controle da queima, foi significativo, embora com oscilações diferenciadas, razão por que não deve ser o único critério para finalização do processo de queimas. A parte central do forno foi a área que atingiu maiores temperaturas de maneira homogênea, com maior concentração de produtos de primeira qualidade; a curva de temperatura ideal foi do tratamento 1, com uma média de 18,66% de produto de primeira qualidade, com temperatura de 100 °C a 400 °C.
Rechargeable solid-state batteries have long been considered an attractive power source for a wide variety of applications, and in particular, lithium-ion batteries are emerging as the technology of choice for portable electronics. One of the main challenges in the design of these batteries is to ensure that the electrodes maintain their integrity over many discharge-recharge cycles. Fe3O4 deserves great attention as one of the most important electrode active materials due to its high theoretical capacity (926 mAhg- 1), low cost, being environmental-friendly and naturally abundance in worldwide. A simple strategy to synthesize magnetite nanoparticles (Fe3O4) by microwave-assisted hydrothermal method in a short processing time without further treatment is reported. The material obtained was tested as anode active material for lithium ions batteries. Impedance spectroscopy revealed that small differences in cell performance on cycling observed between samples cannot be strictly correlated to cell resistance. A high reversible capacity of 768.5 mAhg- 1 at 1C over 50 cycles was demonstrated, suggesting its prospective use as anode material for high power lithium ion batteries.
Crystalline europium-doped indium hydroxide (In(OH)3:Eu) nanostructures were prepared by rapid and efficient Microwave-Assisted Hydrothermal (MAH) method. Nanostructures were obtained at low temperature. FE-SEM images confirm that these samples are composed of 3D nanostructures. XRD, optical diffuse reflectance and photoluminescence (PL) measurements were used to characterize the products. Emission spectra of europium-doped indium hydroxide (IH:xEu) samples under excitation (350.7 nm) presented broad band emission regarding the indium hydroxide (IH) matrix and 5D0 → 7F0, 5D0 → 7F1, 5D0 → 7F2, 5D0 → 7F3 and 5D0 → 7F4 europium transitions at 582, 596, 618, 653 and 701 nm, respectively. Relative intensities of Eu3+ emissions increased as the concentration of this ion increased from 0, 1, 2, 4 and 8 mol %, of Eu3+, but the luminescence is drastically quenched for the IH matrix.
Polymer composite pipes are an appealing option as a substitute for conventional steel pipes, particularly due to their inherent corrosion resistance. However, the composite pipes currently used do not allow non-destructive evaluation (NDE) using instrumented devices which operate with magnetic sensors. The present work aims at the development of polymer composites with the addition magnetic markers to allow the application non-destructive evaluation techniques which use magnetic sensors. Glass-polyester composite flat, circular plates were fabricated with the addition of ferrite particles (barium ferrite and strontium ferrite) and four types of notches were introduced on the plates' surfaces. The influence of these notches on the measured magnetic properties of each material was measured. X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) nitrogen adsorption were used for the characterization of the ferrite particles. Particle dispersion in the polymer matrix was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). According to the results, a particular variation in magnetic field was detected over the region surrounding each type of notch. The results suggest that the proposed technique has great potential for damage detection in polymer composites using magnetic sensors and thus constitute a valuable contribution which may ultimately lead to the development of non-destructive evaluation techniques for assessing the structural integrity polymer composite pipes.
Polycrystalline strontium-doped lanthanum manganite (LSM) powders with 0.15, 0.22, and 0.30 mol % Sr were synthesized by the polymeric precursor route using a molar ratio of 3:1 citric acid and metal cations. The powders were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermal analysis, high-temperature X-ray diffraction to determine the crystalline perovskite phase and crystallite sizes, scanning electron microscopy for the morphological analysis, nitrogen adsorption to determine the specific surface area, and laser scattering to evaluate the particle size distribution. The LSM perovskite-type oxides containing intermediate 0.22 mol % Sr were found to exhibit a tendency to decrease in crystallite size and increase in specific surface area and, when calcined at 700-900 ºC exhibited a pure phase of perovskite, had a crystallite size of about 17-20 nm and a specific surface area for 900 ºC of 34.3 m².g-1.
In this work, aqueous suspensions of aluminas with different particle sizes were evaluated. The effect of pH on the electrosteric stabilization using PMAA-NH4 (ammonium polymethacrylate) as deflocculant was studied. The amount of deflocculant was optimized and rheologic properties were determined at four different pH values. Sedimentation was also evaluated. For suspensions with pH 4, an electrostatic mechanism of stabilization was observed, probably due to a flat adsorption of PMMA- on the alumina surface, leading to a small efficiency in relation to steric stabilization. For a suspension with pH 12, the steric mechanism of stabilization prevails. Suspensions with pH 7 and 9 present a higher flocculation degree. In relation to particle size, A-1000 samples present a smaller particle size, leading to a smaller interparticle distance (IPS), making stabilization more difficult.