Abstract Presently, there are significant research efforts being undertaken to produce bio-based chemicals in a cost-effective way. The polymer chemists and engineers are no exception to this. Additives for polymers correspond to a large section of the plastics market and bio-based products can substitute many of them. The scientific literature has a large number of publications focusing on the preparation and testing of bio-based polymer additives; however, the small number of products that reach the market, which are bio-based, does not reflect this. In terms of the global market, the environmentally friendly appeal of bio-based additives alone is not sufficient; the bio-based product must have similar or better performance than the oil-based and be comparable or lower in cost than the existing products. In this review, we focus on bio-based polymer additives that have already reached the market or have a real possibility of reaching the market in a cost-effective way.
Abstract Off-site measurements of the dimensions of extruder screws are used to monitor their wear. This wear causes the presence of metals in the processed polymer. We detected the presence of iron in polymers processed with corrosive contaminants or abrasive fillers. To this end we processed poly(ethylene terephthalate), PET, pure or contaminated with poly(vinyl chloride), PVC, and other thermoplastics reinforced with glass fibers, talc or vegetal fibers, and analyzed the metals in the processed materials by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. We show that iron dispersed in the polymer melt is generated by corrosion from the PET contaminated with PVC and by erosion from abrasive fillers. The contents of iron in the extruded polymers clearly indicate equipment wear. This contaminant acts as a polymer pro-degradant, decreasing its lifetime. Additionally, we show that the lower concentration of iron for composites with vegetal fibers indicates a lower abrasion in comparison to talc and glass fibers.
Solid municipal waste contains a large volume of polymers and its final disposal is a serious environmental problem. Consequently, the recycling of the principal polymers present in the solid waste is an alternative. In this review we describe the mechanical and chemical recycling of polymers and the energy recovery from plastic wastes. Polymer recycling involves not only the development of processing technologies, but also the solution of many chemical and analytical problems. The technological, economical and social aspects of polymer recycling are also considered.
The main objectives of this article are to present and discuss the facts that lead to the conception of JBCS in 1987, its birth in 1990 and the stages traveled until its consolidation. The community's of Chemistry participation and the role of the Sub-program of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering of PADCT are emphasized.