Abstract Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) are human studies carried out to compare different treatments or interventions, and their results are used to support clinical decision-making and improve patient care. Herein, the aim of this study was to review the selection process of study outcomes in periodontology. Primary outcomes should draw the main conclusions of the study, whereas secondary outcomes should only be used to help explain the main findings and generate future research hypothesis. Outcomes are classified as clinically relevant (CROs) or surrogate outcomes. CROs – the first option for primary outcome variables - should convey not only substantial health benefits, but also be deemed important by patients. In periodontology, tooth loss/retention and oral health–related quality of life (OHRQoL) are examples of CROs. While tooth loss has main limitations as a primary outcome, emerging evidence suggest that patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) can accurately detect OHRQoL following periodontal therapy. When CROs cannot be assessed, validated surrogate outcomes can be used as proxies. Primary outcome variables should reflect a treatment endpoint at the patient level that can be easily used to inform decision-making in daily practice. These outcomes should allow the implementation of a treat-to-target concept in which the intervention can be clearly judged against a prespecified treatment target. Recently, the presence of at most 4 sites with periodontal probing depth ≥5 mm post-treatment was suggested as an effective endpoint for periodontal trials. In perspective, a combination of validated clinical parameters and PROMs will provide a more comprehensive assessment of periodontal treatments.
Abstract: The epidemiological data on gingivitis and periodontitis in Latin America are scarce, as the majority of the Latin American studies have analyzed probing depth instead of clinical attachment loss. Reported data have shown high variations in results between different Latin American countries, with the main causes of these differences being the clinical case definition and methodological strategies used. In general, data have revealed that the prevalence of periodontal disease is higher in Latin Americans than in populations in the USA or Europe. Regarding its relations with other diseases and conditions, some Latin American studies have focused on the association between periodontitis and adverse pregnancy outcomes, or poor glycemic control in diabetic patients; however, these studies have reported controversial results. In Chile, reports have indicated that periodontal treatment significantly reduced the preterm birth rate; however, no association between periodontitis and perinatal outcome was found in Brazil. For diabetes mellitus, Brazilian studies have reported controversial findings; however, a Chilean interventional study reported significant reductions in the glycosylated hemoglobin levels after periodontal treatment. Although epidemiological data for Latin America are scarce, the information available at present is useful for establishing national policies on health promotion, prevention, and treatment of periodontal disease. Therefore, dental schools must play a key role in educating professionals who are highly trained in the promotion, prevention, early diagnosis and treatment of periodontal disease, with an approach to risk, and strong biopsychosocial and ethical components. Thus, future Latin American dentists would be able to face the challenge of decreasing the prevalence of periodontal diseases by leading interdisciplinary health teamwork.
Abstract The impact of clinical trials on patient care depends on the outcomes that they evaluate. In Dentistry, many trials use outcomes that are important to clinicians, but not to the patients. Thus, the aim of the present manuscript is to present an overview of the limitations, challenges, and proposals on the use of clinically relevant outcomes (CRO) in dental trials. Clinically relevant outcomes are variables that directly measure how the patient feels, functions, or survives. Some CROs, such as tooth loss, implant failure, and restorations failure require many years to occur and the number of events is low. The adoption of these variables as primary outcomes results in challenges for the researchers, such as use of large sample sizes and long follow-up periods. Surrogate outcomes, such as biomarkers, radiographic measurements and indexes, are frequently used to replace CROs. However, they present many limitations, since the effect of the treatment on a surrogate does not necessarily reflect a change in the clinical outcome. Some proposals for the adoption of CROs are presented, such as the development of core outcome sets within each dental specialties and the organization of multi-center clinical trials.
ABSTRACT Objectives: This review aimed at evaluating changes in alveolar bone thickness after completion of orthodontic treatment. Methods: Only prospective clinical studies that reported bone thickness in adult patients undergoing non-surgical orthodontic treatment were considered eligible. MEDLINE, EMBASE and LILACS databases were searched for articles published up to July 2018. Results: A total of 12 studies met the selected criteria. Most of the studies showed that orthodontic treatment produces a reduction in bone thickness of incisors, mainly at the palatal side. Conclusion: On patients undergoing different orthodontic treatment techniques, there was a significant bone thickness reduction, mainly on the palatal side. Clinical relevance: These findings are relevant and have to be considered in diagnosis and planning of tooth movement, in order to prevent the occurrence of dehiscence and fenestration in alveolar bone.
RESUMO Objetivo: o objetivo da presente revisão foi avaliar as mudanças na espessura óssea alveolar após o término do tratamento ortodôntico. Métodos: as bases de dados MEDLINE, EMBASE e LILACS foram consultadas para artigos publicados até julho de 2018, sendo considerados elegíveis somente estudos prospectivos clínicos que relataram a espessura óssea em adultos submetidos ao tratamento ortodôntico não cirúrgico. Resultados: no total, 12 estudos atenderam aos critérios de inclusão, e a maioria dos estudos mostrou que o tratamento ortodôntico promove redução na espessura óssea dos incisivos, principalmente na face palatina. Conclusão: em pacientes submetidos a diferentes técnicas ortodônticas, foi observada uma redução significativa na espessura óssea, especialmente na face palatina. Relevância clínica: esses achados são relevantes e devem ser considerados no diagnóstico e plano de tratamento do movimento dentário, com o objetivo de prevenir a ocorrência de deiscências e fenestrações ósseas.
Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a lower dose of parathyroid hormone- PTH (1-34) on osteogenic potential of bone healing around titanium implants inserted into the tibia of rats. A blind parallel study was conducted in 45 adult male Wistar rats. Each rat received one titanium implant (4.5 x 2.2 mm) and was randomly assigned to receive subcutaneous injections, three times/week for 30 days, of the following treatments: group 1 - 40 µg/kg of PTH (1-34) (n=15); group 2 - 2 µg/kg of PTH (1-34) (n=15) and; group 3 - only the vehicle required for hormone dissolution (n=15). Thirty days after surgery, the animals were sacrificed and specimens containing the implant and the surrounding bone were removed and processed for non-decalcified sections. The sections were evaluated according to the following histometric parameters: proportion of mineralized tissue (PMT) adjacent to the implant threads (500 µm band); bone filling within the limits of the threads (BF) and; bone-to-implant contact (BIC). For the cortical region, both hormone dosages (groups 1 and 2) promoted better results, for all parameters, when compared to control group (p<0.05). Similar results were observed for the BF parameter in the cancellous region (p=0.0394). Therefore, systemic administration of PTH (1-34) stimulates bone formation around titanium implants, even at low doses.
Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito de uma menor dose de PTH (1-34) sobre o potencial osteogênico da cicatrização óssea ao redor de implantes de titânio inseridos na tíbia de ratos. Um estudo paralelo cego foi conduzido em 45 ratos Wistar machos adultos. Cada rato recebeu um implante de titânio (4,5 x 2,2 mm) e foi aleatoriamente designado para receber injeções subcutâneas, três vezes / semana por 30 dias, dos seguintes tratamentos: grupo 1 - 40 µg/kg de PTH (1-34) (n = 15); grupo 2 - 2 µg/kg de PTH (1-34) (n = 15) e; grupo 3 - apenas o veículo necessário para a dissolução do hormônio (n = 15). Trinta dias após a cirurgia, os animais foram sacrificados e os espécimes contendo o implante e o osso ao redor foram removidos e processados para cortes não descalcificados. As seções foram avaliadas de acordo com os seguintes parâmetros histométricos: proporção de tecido mineralizado (PTM) adjacente aos fios do implante (banda de 500 µm); preenchimento ósseo dentro dos limites dos fios (PO) e; contato osso-implante (COI). Para a região cortical, ambas as dosagens hormonais (grupos 1 e 2) promoveram melhores resultados, para todos os parâmetros, quando comparados ao grupo controle (p<0,05). Resultados semelhantes foram observados para o parâmetro PO na região esponjosa (p = 0,0394). Portanto, a administração sistêmica de PTH (1-34) estimula a formação óssea ao redor de implantes de titânio, mesmo em doses baixas.
Abstract The objective of this study was to determine whether collagen matrix (CM) is an alternative to connective tissue graft technique (CTG) in the treatment of multiple gingival recessions (GR). The indication of CM for the treatment of multiple GR is not yet clear. More studies are needed to better understand this treatment modality, as an alternative to CTG. In this single-blind, split-mouth randomized clinical trial, fifteen patients with multiple Miller class I upper GR were selected and randomly assigned to control group (CTG) or test group (CM). Root coverage (RC) and patient-centered outcomes were evaluated at baseline and after 3, 6, and 12 months. A total of 82 GRs were treated. There was no significant difference regarding GR depth (GRD, primary outcome) between CTG (0.5 ± 0.9 mm) and CM groups (0.6 ± 1.0 mm) (p = 0.225). Percentage of RC was 82.14% in CTG and 77.7% in CM. Both groups demonstrated a gain in keratinized tissue width at 12 months (p < 0.05). Dentine hypersensitivity was effectively reduced in both groups. Postoperative pain was significantly higher in the CTG (p = 0.001). Esthetic satisfaction was high for both groups, with no significant difference (p > 0.05) between groups. After 12 months, both surgical treatments were able to promote RC, and GRD was similar in both CTG and CM groups.
Abstract The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the clinical outcomes of dental implants placed in previously early and late implant failed sites. An electronic literature search was conducted in several databases for articles published up to February 2018. Human clinical trials that received at least one implant in a previously failed site were included. Hence, the PICO question that was aimed to be addressed was: Do patients undergoing implant replacement (second and third attempts) in previous failed sites have survival rates similar to implants placed at first attempts? A random effects model was used to calculate survival weighted means and corresponding 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) among studies. Eleven studies of low to moderate methodological quality were included in this review. Implants placed in sites with history of one and two implant failures had a weighted survival rate (SR) of 88.7% (95%CI 81.7-93.3) and 67.1% (95%CI 51.1-79.9), respectively. Implants placed in sites with a previous early failure revealed a weighted SR of 91.8% (95%CI 85.1-95.6). First implants presented higher SR than implants placed in sites with one or two previous implant failures. In contrast, implants placed in sites with one and two implant failures had similar SR. Within its limitations, this review suggests that replacement implants have moderate SR. Larger prospective studies with well-defined criteria for early and late implant failure are necessary to confirm and expand on these results.
Abstract This is a cross-sectional study that aimed to estimate maxillary sinus floor (MSF) pneumatization in single missing tooth of posterior maxilla, by using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). CBCT images were analyzed bilaterally and divided into 2 groups: edentulous site (EdS) - edentulous single region of upper second premolar, first or second molars; Tooth site (TS) - contralateral region homologous to the EdS region, with tooth present. Variables evaluated were: sinus height (SH), estimated sinus pneumatization (eSP: ∆ EdS - TS), healed ridge height (HR) and presence of localized sinus pneumatization (LSP) in molars teeth at TS. HR were categorized according to therapeutic option for posterior maxilla. 183 CBCT scans were included and it was observed that EdS presented a higher SH than the TS (p < 0.001) showing an eSP of 0.9 ± 2.93 mm. First molars presented the highest SH for both sides, although significant differences were detected when compared to second molars. First molars were mostly affected by LSP at TS (36 out of 43). Individuals with LSP at TS presented lower HR than the ones without LSP (p < 0.05). 54% of the cases presenting LSP obtained HR < 5 mm, which indicates sinus lift surgery. The present study showed that tooth loss in posterior maxilla favors sinus pneumatization and the identification of LSP at molar roots seems to indicate a greater necessity for sinus lift surgeries.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Angiosarcoma is an aggressive, malignant neoplasm of vascular or lymphatic origin. Herpes virus 8 (HHV-8) is a member of the herpes family with a tropism for endothelial cells and it has been proven to induce vascular neoplasms, such as Kaposi's sarcoma. The role of HHV-8 in the pathogenesis of angiosarcoma has not been well defined. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between the presence of HHV-8 and angiosarcoma. METHODS: In this study, the team investigated the relationship between the presence of HHV-8, as determined by polymerase chain reaction, and angiosarcoma, using samples from patients with epidemic Kaposi's sarcoma as controls. RESULTS: While all control cases with epidemic Kaposi's sarcoma were positive for HHV-8, none of the angiosarcoma cases was. CONCLUSION: These findings support most previous studies that found no association between HHV-8 and angiosarcoma.
Abstract The purpose of this 24-month study was to identify predictors of smoking cessation in a cohort of smokers with chronic periodontitis, attending a multidisciplinary smoking cessation program. Of the 286 subjects screened, 116 were included and received non-surgical periodontal treatment and smoking cessation therapy, which consisted of lectures, cognitive behavioral therapy, and pharmacotherapy, according to their individual needs. During initial periodontal treatment, dentists actively motivated the study subjects to stop smoking, using motivational interviewing techniques. Further smoking cessation counseling and support were also provided by the dentists, during periodontal maintenance sessions at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months of follow-up. Smoking status was assessed by means of a structured questionnaire, and was validated by exhaled carbon monoxide (CO) measurements. The Fagerström Test for Cigarette Dependence was used to assess smoking dependence. Of the 61 individuals that remained up to the 24-month examination, 31, 21 and 18 declared that they were not smoking at 3, 12 and 24 months, respectively. Smoking cessation after 24 months was associated with the male gender (OR = 3.77, 95%CI = 1.16–12.30), baseline CO levels less than 10ppm (OR = 5.81, 95%CI 1.76–19.23), not living or working with another smoker (OR = 7.38, 95%CI 1.76–30.98) and a lower mean Fagerström test score (OR = 5.63, 95%CI 1.55–20.43). We concluded that smoking cessation was associated with demographic, smoking history and cigarette dependence variables.
Great possibilities for oral rehabilitation emerged as a result of scientific consolidation, as well as a large number of dental implant applications. Along with implants appeared diseases such as mucositis and peri-implantitis, requiring management through several strategies applied at different stages. Biofilm accumulation is associated with clinical signs manifest by both tooth and implant inflammation. With this in mind, regular and complete biofilm elimination becomes essential for disease prevention and host protection. Chemical control of biofilms, as an adjuvant to mechanical oral hygiene, is fully justified by its simplicity and efficacy proven by studies based on clinical evidence. The purpose of this review was to present a consensus regarding the importance of antimicrobial mouthrinse use as an auxiliary method in chemical peri-implant biofilm control. The active ingredients of the several available mouthrinses include bis-biguanide, essential oils, phenols, quaternary ammonium compounds, oxygenating compounds, chlorine derivatives, plant extracts, fluorides, antibiotics and antimicrobial agent combinations. It was concluded that there is strong clinical evidence that at least two mouthrinses have scientifically proven efficacy against different oral biofilms, i.e., chlorhexidine digluconate and essential oils; however, 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate presents a number of unwanted side effects and should be prescribed with caution. Chemical agents seem beneficial in controlling peri-implant inflammation, although they require further investigation. We recommend a scientifically proven antiseptic, with significant short and long term efficacy and with no unwanted side effects, for the prevention and/or treatment of peri-implant disease.
Different reasons can contribute to classifying dental prosthesis wearers as high-risk individuals in relation to dental biofilm accumulation. These include a past history of oral disease, age and additional retentive areas. Other common complaints include inflammation and halitosis. Moreover, prosthesis replacement and prosthetic pillar loss are generally associated with caries and periodontal disease recurrence. Therefore, the present study undertook to make a critical review of the literature, aiming at discussing the main aspects related to chemical agent prescriptions for dental prosthesis wearers. Most of the articles were selected based on relevance, methods and availability in regard to the specific subject under investigation, without considering publication year limitations. Different types of prostheses and their impact on teeth and other oral tissues were reported. It was demonstrated that there is greater biofilm buildup and increased inflammatory levels in the presence of different types of prostheses, suggesting that additional measures are required both on population-wide and individual levels in order to control these factors. Mechanical control consists of a combination of manual or electric toothbrush and toothpaste, as well as specific devices for interdental cleaning. Although many chemical agents exhibit antimicrobial benefits when used for prosthesis disinfection, only a few agents can be used safely without causing damage. Regarding the selection of antiseptics by the overall population, chlorhexidine is the most indicated in the short term and in sporadic cases. The most indicated adjuncts to overcome the deficiencies and limitations of daily mechanical biofilm control are products containing essential oils as active ingredients.
Properly performed daily mechanical biofilm control is the most important prevention strategy for periodontal diseases. However, proper mechanical biofilm control is not performed effectively by the majority of the population, mainly due to lack of motivation and of manual dexterity. Local biofilm retention factors may aggravate home oral hygiene quality. For this reason, patients wearing fixed orthodontic appliances comprise a group that may benefit from the daily use of mouthwashes. The purpose of this review was to perform a systematic search in the literature on antiseptics used to control supragingival biofilm and gingivitis in orthodontic patients. Six studies investigating the effect of chlorhexidine and 5 studies evaluating the effect of the daily use of antiseptics were found. Chlorhexidine showed better results in reducing plaque and gingivitis. However, because of its adverse effects after continuous use, it should not be indicated for long-term periods. Among the agents considered for daily use, the fixed combination of essential oils was the only one evaluated in a clinical trial, in which a comparative group presented a statistically significant clinical impact. There is no direct evidence supporting the indication of antiseptic agents for orthodontic patients other than chlorhexidine and essential oils. It can be concluded that, for patients undergoing orthodontic treatment, chlorhexidine should be considered for treating acute gingival inflammation, whereas essential oils should be indicated for long-term daily use in controlling supragingival biofilm.
The impact of smoking on general health has been widely studied and is directly related to several important medical problems including cancer, low birth weight, and pulmonary and cardiovascular disease. In the past 25 years, there has also been an increasing awareness of the role of cigarette consumption in oral health problems such as periodontal disease. Smoking is considered the major risk factor in the prevalence, extent and severity of periodontal diseases. This article will discuss the available evidence and provide the reader with an overview of the impact of smoking and its cessation on the pathogenesis and treatment of periodontal diseases.