Introduction The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence of tuberculous meningitis in the State of Santa Catarina (SC), Brazil, during the period from 2001 to 2010. Methods Ecological, temporal, and descriptive methods were employed using data obtained from the Information System on Disease Notification (Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação). Results One hundred sixteen reported cases of tuberculous meningitis occurred from 2001 to 2010, corresponding to 1.2% (0.2 cases/100,000 inhabitants) of all meningitis cases reported in SC. There was a predominance of new cases in males, corresponding to 56.9% of new cases (0.2 cases/100,000 inhabitants; males vs. females; p=0.374), in patients aged 20-39 years, corresponding to 52.6% of new cases (0.5 cases/100,000 inhabitants; 20-39 years versus others; p<0.001), and in urban areas, corresponding to 91.4% of new cases (0.2 cases/100,000 inhabitants; urban vs. rural; p=0.003). In 48.3% of cases, the outcome was death. Conclusions The incidence rate of tuberculous meningitis in SC has increased within the last decade, with the most affected population comprising young adult white males with an average education. Thus, tuberculous meningitis remains a serious disease, emphasizing the need for disease prevention with vaccination campaigns against tuberculosis, the development of faster and more accurate diagnostic methods, and the use of current epidemiological knowledge regarding the disease to facilitate the establishment of early treatment.
To investigate tobacco use and associated factors among college students at a university in southern Brazil in 2010, we conducted a cross-sectional study using self-reported questionnaires. The sample was divided into two main groups: the Health area and other courses The sample number in each group was divided according to the ratio of the total number of students. Students who composed the sample were selected from the first and last year of each course. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS version 17.0(r). 584 students responded to questionnaires. The prevalence of smoking among students was 8.9%, 4.7% were smokers and 4.2% occasional smokers; 2.6% reported they were former smokers. The average age was 23.0 years (± 9.7), 62.3% were female. Among smokers 49% started smoking on their own and 27.4% under the influence of friends. We observed a significant association between smoking and alcohol use (OR 5.80; 95%CI 1.20-28.01), illicit drugs (OR 42.29; 95%CI 11.45-175.1) and the existence of other relatives who are smokers (OR 4.02; 95%CI 2.05-7.85).The prevalence of smoking found in this study was low. Smoking was significantly associated with student drugs users, consuming alcohol and to have a smoker in the family.
A fim de investigar o uso de tabaco e fatores associados entre universitários do Sul do Brasil no ano de 2010, realizou-se estudo transversal com questionários autoaplicáveis. A amostra foi dividida em dois grandes grupos: área da Saúde e demais cursos. A amostra de cada grupo foi dividida de acordo com a proporção em relação ao número total de alunos. Os alunos foram selecionados do primeiro e último ano de cada curso. A análise estatística foi realizada no Software SPSS versão 17.0(r). Responderam aos questionários 584 alunos. A prevalência de tabagismo entre os acadêmicos foi de 8,9%, sendo 4,7% tabagistas ativos e 4,2% fumantes ocasionais; 2,6% declararam-se ex-fumantes. A idade média foi de 23,0 anos (±9,7), sendo 62,3% do sexo feminino. Dentre os fumantes 49% começaram a fumar por vontade própria e 27,4% por influência de amigos. A maioria declarou fumar para relaxar. Observou-se associação significativa entre o tabagismo e o uso de álcool (OR 5,80; IC95% 1,20-28,01) e de drogas ilícitas (OR 42,29; IC95% 11,45-175,1) e a existência de outros familiares fumantes (OR 4,02; IC95% 2,05-7,85). A prevalência de tabagismo encontrada neste estudo foi baixa. O tabagismo foi significativamente associado a alunos usuários de drogas ilícitas, que fazem uso de álcool e que tem algum tabagista na família.