Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is the most common malignancy in the biliary tract. Without effective treatment, its prognosis is notoriously poor. Tea polyphenols (TPs) have many pharmacological and health benefits, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, anti-thrombotic, antibacterial, and vasodilatory properties. However, the anti-cancer effect of TPs in human gallbladder cancer has not yet been determined. Cell viability and colony formation assay were used to investigate the cell growth. Cell cycle and apoptosis were evaluated by flow cytometry analysis. Western blot assay was used to detect the expression of proteins related to cell cycle and apoptosis. Human tumor xenografts were used to examine the effect of TPs on gallbladder cancer cells in vivo. TPs significantly inhibited cell growth of gallbladder cancer cell lines in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Cell cycle progression in GBC cells was blocked at the S phase by TPs. TPs also induced mitochondrial-related apoptosis in GBC cells by upregulating Bax, cleaved caspase-3, and cleaved PARP expressions and downregulating Bcl-2, cyclin A, and Cdk2 expressions. The effects of TPs on GBC were further proven in vivo in a mouse xenograft model. Our study is the first to report that TPs inhibit GBC cell growth and these compounds may have potential as novel therapeutic agents for treating gallbladder cancer.
The water sorption, water barrier properties and mechanical behavior of soy protein isolate (SPI) based films combined with propylene glycol alginate (PGA) and lauric acid (La) via a direct- or co-dried blending process were investigated. Higher water retention ability and a single glass transition temperature (Tg) were found when the PGA was added to form different ternary co-dried blending films by a co-drying process, indicating their compatibility. Tg was reduced in the case of higher relative humidity and incorporation of La. The response surface methodology (RSM) indicated that the effect of La content was highly significant (p < 0.05) for the water retention ability and mechanical properties, and the proposed models calculated for the tensile strength and elongation at break showed a good fit. The results revealed the importance of the interactions among lipids, protein and polysaccharide in composite films which also provided evidence for modeling film behavior.
Abstract Streptococcus pneumoniae is one of the most frequent opportunistic pathogens worldwide. DNA processing protein A (DprA) is an important factor involved in bacterial uptake and DNA integration into bacterial genome, but its role in S. pneumoniae virulence remains unclear. The aim of this study was to characterize the effects of the pneumococcal dprA gene on the pathogenesis of S. pneumoniae. To construct a dprA-deficient pneumococcal strain, the dprA gene of the S. pneumoniae strain D39 was inactivated. The virulence of this dprA-deficient strain, designated ΔD39, was compared with that of the wild-type strain by evaluating their respective capabilities to adhere to human pulmonary epithelial cells (PEC-A549) and by analyzing their choline-binding protein expression levels. In addition, the expression profiles of genes associated with virulence and host survival assays were also conducted with the mutant and the wild-type strain. Our results indicate that the capability of ΔD39 to adhere to the PEC-A549 airway cells was significantly lower (p < 0.01) compared with D39. Additionally, the 100-KD choline-binding protein was not detected in ΔD39. The addition of competence-stimulating peptide (CSP) lead to a significantly reduction of psaA mRNA expression in the dprA-deficient mutant and an increased level of psaA transcripts in the wild-type strain (p < 0.01). The median survival time of mice intraperitoneally infected with ΔD39 was significantly higher (p < 0.01) than that of mice infected with D39. The results of this study suggest that DprA has a significant effect on virulence characteristics of S. pneumoniae by influencing the expression of choline-binding protein and PsaA.
ABSTRACT Cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) is a protein kinase that is homologous to mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). Mutations in the CDKL5 gene cause X-linked infantile spasms and phenotypes that overlap with that of Rett syndrome, which is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused primarily by mutations in the methyl CpG binding protein 2 gene (MECP2). Previous studies in transfected cell lines showed that CDKL5 interacts with MeCP2 and DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase 1 (Dnmt1). However, little is known about the relationships of CDKL5 with interacting proteins in primary neuronal cultures. In this study, we investigated the expression patterns of CDKL5, MeCP2 and Dnmt1, and their interaction in cultured rat cortical neurons. Using real-time PCR analysis, we found that CDKL5, MeCP2 and Dnmt1 have similar expression patterns at the mRNA level. In contrast, the expression patterns of those proteins at the protein level are different and could be inversely correlated, as shown by western blotting. Using co-immunoprecipitation, we further demonstrated that CDKL5 interacts with MeCP2 and Dnmt1 in primary rat cortical neurons. These data suggest that a functional link exists among CDKL5, MeCP2 and Dnmt1 during neuronal development and may provide further insight into the pathogenesis of Rett syndrome.
The effect of calcination conditions on the size and killing activity of CaO nanoparticles towards L. plantarum was studied in this paper. The results showed that CaO nanoparticles with a diameter of 20 nm could be obtained under the investigated conditions. The lethal effect of CaO nanoparticles after incubation of 6 or 24 h increased with increasing calcination time. Using CaO-SA, CaO-SB, and CaO-SC after a 24-h exposure, 2.25, 3.37, and 5.97 log L. plantarum were killed, respectively, at a concentration of 100 ppm. The current results show that the use of CaO nanoparticles as antibacterial agents has significant potential in food-relevant industries.
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the trends and characteristics of pethidine prescriptions and users in Taiwan from 2002 to 2007. METHOD: All pethidine users (n = 3,301,136) in Taiwan from 2002 to 2007 were linked to National Health Insurance claims to identify pethidine prescriptions. We examined the trends in pethidine user prevalence and the proportion of pethidine prescriptions according to health care characteristics. A logistic regression model was used to compare patient demographics and health care characteristics associated with pethidine prescriptions between 2002 and 2007. RESULTS: Despite the decline in the number of pethidine users and prescriptions over the six-year period, more than half a million people were prescribed pethidine annually. In fact, an increasing proportion of pethidine prescriptions were observed in clinics, outpatient settings, and patients who had both operations and cancer diagnoses. Pethidine prescriptions were mostly associated with a non-operation status without a cancer diagnosis (>60%). However, approximately 10% of the total pethidine prescriptions were found in patients with a cancer diagnosis but no operation. Compared to those in 2002, pethidine prescriptions in 2007 were more likely to be found in people 80 years or older, rural residents, patients from clinics, outpatient settings and operation patients with cancer diagnoses. CONCLUSIONS: A population-based survey in Taiwan demonstrated decreasing consumption of pethidine from 2002 to 2007; however, an increased proportion of prescriptions in certain health care settings was observed. In addition, 10% of the pethidine prescriptions were for cancer patients without operations. These cases need further evaluation for the determination of appropriate pethidine use.
OBJECTIVE: To examine and describe coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality and its pattern of change (trend) by sex, age, and area of residence (urban versus rural) in Tianjin, China, within the context of epidemiological transition, and compare it with current trends in the Americas and Europe. METHODS: A total of 104 393 cases of CHD death in Tianjin occurring between 1999 and 2008 were monitored. Death due to CHD was coded using International Classification of Diseases (ICD) standards (ninth and tenth revisions). Standardized CHD mortality rates and their trends were analyzed by age, sex, and urban versus rural residence. RESULTS: During the 10-year study period, the proportion of total deaths due to CHD in Tianjin increased significantly (from 16% to 24%) and age-standardized CHD mortality increased slightly (with no statistical differences), in contrast to CHD mortality trends in various countries in the Americas and Europe, which are declining. No difference was found in Tianjin's CHD mortality trend by sex. Overall CHD mortality was consistently higher among older age groups, males, and residents of urban areas. The proportion of CHD deaths occurring outside hospitals was 55.81%, with a declining trend over the study period. Rural areas had a higher proportion of outside-hospital CHD mortality than urban areas, but no difference was found across age groups. CONCLUSIONS: From 1999 to 2008, CHD mortality in Tianjin varied by sex, age, and urban versus rural area of residence. Future research to identify CHD risk factors and the populations most vulnerable to the disease is recommended to help strengthen CHD prevention. Strategies for CHD control similar to those used in various developed countries in the Americas and Europe should be developed to reduce the CHD burden in China.
OBJETIVO: Examinar y describir la mortalidad por cardiopatía coronaria y su patrón de cambio (tendencia) por sexo, edad y zona de residencia (urbana frente a rural) en Tianjín, China, en el contexto de la transición epidemiológica, y compararla con las tendencias actuales en las Américas y Europa. MÉTODOS: Se analizaron 104 393 casos de muertes debidas a cardiopatía coronaria ocurridas en Tianjín entre 1999 y 2008. Se codificó la mortalidad debida a cardiopatía coronaria según la Clasificación Internacional de Enfermedades (novena y décima revisiones). Se analizaron las tasas estandarizadas de mortalidad por cardiopatía coronaria y sus tendencias por edad, sexo y residencia urbana frente a rural. RESULTADOS: Durante el período de estudio, de 10 años, la proporción de la mortalidad total debida a cardiopatía coronaria registrada en Tianjín aumentó significativamente (de 16% a 24%) y la mortalidad por cardiopatía coronaria estandarizada por edad aumentó levemente (sin significación estadística), en contraposición con las tendencias de mortalidad por cardiopatía coronaria observadas en diversos países de las Américas y Europa, que están descendiendo. No se encontraron diferencias en la tendencia de la mortalidad por cardiopatía coronaria por sexo en Tianjín. La mortalidad general por cardiopatía coronaria fue sistemáticamente más elevada en los grupos de mayor edad, los varones y los residentes de zonas urbanas. La proporción de muertes debidas a cardiopatía coronaria que ocurrieron fuera de los hospitales fue de 55,81%, con una tendencia decreciente en el período de estudio. Esta proporción fue mayor en las zonas rurales que en las urbanas, pero no se encontró diferencia entre los distintos grupos de edad. CONCLUSIONES: Desde 1999 hasta el 2008, la mortalidad por cardiopatía coronaria en Tianjín varió según el sexo, la edad y la residencia urbana frente a la rural. Se recomienda efectuar nuevas investigaciones para identificar los factores de riesgo de cardiopatía coronaria y las poblaciones más vulnerables a la enfermedad, a fin de mejorar la prevención de la cardiopatía coronaria. Deben elaborarse estrategias para controlar la enfermedad similares a las usadas en varios países desarrollados de las Américas y Europa para reducir la carga de cardiopatía coronaria en China.
El uso de la lengua materna es una ocurrencia común en los contextos de la enseñanza de la lengua extranjera, a pesar de que a veces reciba críticas por su interferencia en la adquisición de la Lengua meta. Mientras que los docentes deben maximizar el uso de la Lengua meta, sin duda, hay espacios para que el profesor utilice la lengua materna de los estudiantes en su pedagogía. En este trabajo se presenta un argumento basado en las perspectivas teóricas y la investigación empírica dentro de la literatura existente, apoyando el uso apropiado de la Lengua materna en el salón de inglés como lengua extranjera. El argumento se centra en tres cuestiones fundamentales-racionales para el uso de la lengua materna: Los efectos positivos que la lengua materna tiene tanto en el aprendizaje y la instrucción de una lengua extranjera, como en las formas en las que la lengua materna ayuda a los docentes de idiomas extranjeros.
L1 use is a common occurrence in foreign language teaching contexts despite the fact that it often receives criticism for its interference with target language (TL) acquisition. While foreign language teachers should maximize their use of the TL, there is indeed a place for the teacher to use the students' L1 in their pedagogy. In this paper, an argument derived from theoretical perspectives and empirical research within existing literature supporting the appropriate use of L1 in foreign language classrooms is presented. The argument addresses three key issues-rationales for L1 use, positive effects L1 has on both foreign language learning and instruction, and ways that L1 assists instructors on foreign languages.
En este artículo se plantea el problema de si es apropiado para las universidades o colegios establecer las pruebas de desempeño en lengua extranjera como requisito para la graduación. Se ofrece una revisión histórica de la relación entre la validez y el uso de la prueba. Se presentan ejemplos de cómo evaluar la conveniencia y las consecuencias del uso de estas pruebas para indagar sobre los factores que deben tenerse en cuenta en los procesos de toma de decisiones. Finalmente, se ofrece un modelo que especifica las evidencias que deben recolectarse para apoyar la decisión sobre una prueba válida y sobre un uso mas convincente y beneficioso de las pruebas para los individuos que deben tomarlas.
This paper addresses the issue of whether it is appropriate for universities or junior colleges to set foreign language proficiency requirements for graduation and offers a historical review of the relationship of test validity and test use. Examples of how to evaluate the appropriateness and consequences of test use are presented in order to discover what factors must be taken into account that contributes to the decision-making process. Finally, a model that specifies what evidence needs to be collected in support of a valid test decision is offered to help make decisions of test use more convincing and accordingly more beneficial to those individuals and groups who are affected by the tests.