RESUMO: Conhecido como um animal de múltiplas funções, o Equus asinus sempre foi utilizado para diversos fins, tais como entretenimento, cavalgadas, meios de transporte, tração agrícola e produção de leite. Embora os asininos estejam associados a um vasto patrimônio social, cultural, econômico e ecológico, eles perderam importância nas atividades das propriedades rurais, tanto nas economias desenvolvidas dos países europeus como na região Nordeste do Brasil. Não existem estudos específicos de sistemas de produção visando a exploração racional das espécies de asininos no Brasil. Novas perspectivas para o uso do asno na região semiárida brasileira através da indústria leiteira despertou o interesse científico e o interesse dos investidores. O asinino, aliado ao baixo custo de produção e à rusticidade da espécie, tem a capacidade de contribuir para a economia com produtos de alto valor biológico e características terapêuticas. Assim, esta revisão forneceu uma visão ampla do asinino criado no Nordeste do Brasil, observando suas características e relevância para a região. Os benefícios do leite asinino e a necessidade de promover a produção e comercialização deste leite na cadeia produtiva do leite também serão discutidos.
ABSTRACT: Known as an animal of multiple functions, the Equus asinus has always been used for various purposes, such as entertainment, horseback riding, means of transport, agricultural traction and dairy farming. Although, donkeys are associated with a vast heritage of social, cultural, economic and ecological importance, they have lost their importance in the activities of rural properties, both in the developed economies of European countries and in the Northeast region of Brazil. Specific studies of production systems aimed rational exploitation of the donkey species in Brazil do not exist. New perspectives for the use of donkey in the Brazilian semiarid region through the dairy industry has aroused scientific interest and the interest of investors. The donkey, allied to the low production costs and rusticity of the species, has the capacity to contribute to the economy with products of high biological value and therapeutic characteristics. Thus, this review provided a broad view of the donkey bred in the Northeast of Brazil, observing its characteristics and relevance for the region. The benefits of donkey milk and the need to promote the production and marketing of this milk in the dairy production chain will also be discussed.
Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of six typical Brazilian cheeses (bovine milk coalho, goat milk coalho, fresh ricotta, manteiga, fresh Minas, and Padrão Minas). Padrão Minas cheese presented high acidity and the highest contents of protein, fat, and ash, while Ricotta cheese presented the lowest contents of protein, fat, and ash. Bovine milk coalho and Minas fresh cheeses were characterized as source of zinc. Manteiga cheese was characterized by the yellow color (higher b* values). Goat milk coalho cheese was characterized by the white color (higher L* values) and presented the highest concentration of minerals (potassium, iron, magnesium, calcium, manganese, and phosphorus). Part of the typical Brazilian cheeses did not agree with the legislation for moisture (5.9%) and fat in the dry matter (11.8%) classifications, as well as, did not have adequate concentrations of protein (65.4%) and fat (44.9%) stated in the label, being the non-conformity dependent on the cheese type. Furthermore, 30% of the cheeses (30%) disagreed with the microbiological Brazilian legislation, as they presented coliforms and/or coagulase-positive Staphylococcus counts above the limits. It can be concluded that the Brazilian cheeses are nutritive, but the microbial quality and nutritional labels need improvement.
Abstract The aim of the present study was to evaluate the physical and chemical quality of the brown soybean preserve in function of the ascorbic acid concentration and the maceration time, and also to evaluate the chemical composition, microbiological hazard, and acceptability of the best preserve, in addition verify its technological, nutritional, functional and sensory viability. The hardness of the grain ranged between 8.6 and 23N and was significantly affected by the maceration time. The ascorbic acid concentration influenced antioxidant activity (ranged between 4.3 and 183.8 mg100g-1) and total phenolic compounds (ranged between 176.4 and 466.2 mg100g-1). The best brown soybean preserve was obtained with a maceration time of 23 min and an ascorbic acid concentration of 0.15 g100g-1 . This shows high nutritional value and essential amino acid content, absence of trypsin inhibitor and microbiological risk, and also sensory acceptance. Therefore, the brown soybean preserve is viable, and its consumption is recommended.
Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of acid pretreatment, temperature and enzyme concentration on the acid-enzymatic extraction of soluble collagen from chicken keel bone cartilage. A chemical composition analysis and protein profile characterization of this slaughter by-product were also conducted. The cartilages were extracted with 0.5 mol/L of acetic, lactic and citric acids for 24, 48 and 72 hours. Subsequently, optimization with a 22 factorial design was performed with three replications at the central point for a total of 7 experiments; the analyzed response was the collagen content of the obtained isolates. The cartilage under study has a high protein content (90.27% dry basis) consisting of approximately 35.7% collagen and is a source of essential and predominantly hydrophobic amino acids. Pretreatment with acetic acid for 24 hours led to greater extraction potential and consequently, a better collagen yield (30.12%). The electrophoretic profile of the obtained collagens revealed the existence of an α1 chain, indicating that this collagen was type II. Statistical analysis demonstrated that the acid-enzymatic procedure favored a temperature of 30 °C.
Abstract Food-type soybean, considered a functional and nutritious food, becomes an new alternative food in human nutrition, and its preserve is an option to the consumer market. The present study aims to verify the effect of maceration time of the grains and the acetic acid concentration in brine on the physical and chemical characteristics of a edible soybean preserves, and to evaluate the proximal composition, microbiological risk and sensory acceptance of the selected preserve. The methodology used was the response surface and the central composite rotational design. The presence of acetic acid in the brine was prejudicial to the quality of the edible soybean preserve - BRSMG 790A cultivar. The soybean preserve with the best characteristics was obtained with a maceration time of 100 minutes and without the addition of acetic acid. The product was microbiological safe, showed sensory acceptance and high nutritional value (15.5 g 100 g-1 of protein and 7.0 g 100 g-1 of lipid), free of trypsin inhibitor. The essential amino acids represented 17.2% of those in the dry grain, more than 50% the standard values proposed for the essential amino acids for children and adults. The selected preserve maintained 31.25% of the antioxidant activity of the grains and could be used as a viable technological option.
ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different microwave-roasting timeson different sizes of soybean grains with black tegument to achieve the best crunchiness, flavor, and hardness. Black soybean dragées- containing a soybean core coated with layers of chocolate (dragée) - were manufactured, and their nutritional value, microbiological risk, acceptability, and consumer-purchase intentions were verified. Flavor and crunchiness of the roasted black soybeans wereonly affected by the roasting time in the microwave, whereas the hardness was only affected by grain size. The best core of the dragéewas obtainedusing grains ofsieve size 15 (large grains) roastedin the microwave for 11 min; this core presented higher frequencies for extremely crunchy notes (56%), toasted flavor (61%), and an instrumental hardness close to that of the existing commercial product (33.17 N). The manufactured dragées did not present resistant starch, anthocyanins, and microbiological risk, and they were sensorially accepted by the tasters (mean scores of 7.77 for texture and 8.36 for appearance on a scale of 1 to 9). Thus, roasted black soybean dragéeshave a high marketing potential from technological, nutritional, and sensorial points of view.
RESUMO: Este estudo objetivou avaliar o efeito do tempo de torra no micro-ondas para diferentes tamanhos de grãos de soja tipo alimento de tegumento preto, de forma a atingir a melhor crocância, sabor e dureza, e em seguida caracterizar o seu confeito, estruturado na forma de núcleo e camadas de cobertura de chocolate (drageados), em relação ao valor nutricional, risco microbiológico, aceitabilidade e intenção de compra pelos consumidores. O sabor e a crocância da soja preta torrada foram afetados somente pelo tempo de torra em micro-ondas, enquanto a dureza somente foi afetada pela dimensão dos grãos. O melhor núcleo (selecionado) foi obtido com os grãos de peneira 15 (grãos grandes), no tempo de 11 min de torra em micro-ondas, pois apresentou maior frequência para as notas de extremamente crocante (56%), sabor de torrado (61%), e uma dureza instrumental próxima ao produto comercial (33,17 N). As drágeas não apresentaram amido resistente, antocianinas e risco microbiológico, e foram sensorialmente aceitas pelos provadores (scores médios de 7,77 para textura e 8,36 para aparência, em uma escala de 1 a 9). Portanto, o drageado de soja preta torrada com chocolate é viável do ponto de vista tecnológico, nutricional e sensorial, com alto potencial de comercialização.
Abstract Brazil is the world's largest producer of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), which are one of the most widely consumed grain legumes in the world. Seven improved genotypes of dry, coloured, Brazilian common beans were analysed for their nutritional (chemical composition, oligosaccharides, phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity) and protein quality (amino acid profile, amino acid score, trypsin inhibitor activity and in vitro protein digestibility). The grain bean cultivars studied showed a high content of fibre, with some aromatic amino acids present at higher levels than the Food and Agriculture Organization reference protein. The dry beans had intermediate protein digestibility, ranging from 50.3% in the BRS Notável cultivar to 66.9% in the Jalo Precoce cultivar. The studied dry beans contained anti-nutritional and flatulence factors, such as trypsin inhibitors and oligosaccharides. However, total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity were high. Improved grain beans have important nutritional characteristics that need to be preserved, and some negative, anti-nutritional characteristics. The results presented in this study can be used to assist the identification of appropriate processing techniques that maintain the positive features of dry beans and eliminate their negative attributes.
Abstract The use of the defatted baru almond (Dipteryx alata Vog.) prevents the production of waste residues after extraction of its oil (partially defatted baru flour), representing a process of interest from an environmental point of view. The aim of this study was to prepare oat cookies with functional properties, replacing 100% soy oil for baru oil and 30% wheat flour for partially defatted baru flour (baru cookie). Baru cookies presented a higher moisture (7.80%), probably due to the high content of dietary fiber (3.78%), resulting in a lower calorie content (457.46 kcal.100 g–1), compared to traditional oat cookies. Changing the formulation resulted in the enrichment of a number of microelements, including phosphorus (~ 197.90 mg.100 g–1) and iron (~ 21.56 mg.100 g–1). Baru oil increased the concentration of unsaturated fatty acids (~ 76.11%), consisting of approximately 50.37% monounsaturated (MUFA), and 25.74% polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The total phenolic compound content was approximately doubled in the baru cookie. As such, the baru cookie presents an interesting composition from a nutritional point of view, having a high protein and dietary fiber content, in addition to presenting substantial concentrations of iron and oleic acid, and may be used as part of a healthy diet.
Abstract This review is an attempt to compile current knowledge on concepts and transformations that occur naturally in the human body and that characterize what is defined today as biological aging with quality of life and longevity. Many authors define natural aging as a continuous and uninterrupted process, which occurs in the human body causing structural and functional changes, classified as: cumulative, progressive, intrinsic and deleterious (CUPID). Usually these changes begin early in life and culminate in physical death. Genetic, chemical and biochemical changes lead to progressive degeneration of cells, tissues and organs, body systems and the organism as a whole, leading to loss of structures and functions due to aging. All these changes were discussed in some detail in the review here presented. We concluded that aging is not genetically determined, resulting in the accumulation of cellular and tissue damage, particularly in chromatin and DNA within cells, in addition to structural and bioactive proteins that command the general metabolism. Environmental factors such as feeding (nutrition) and lifestyle were also discussed.
Resumo Esta revisão é uma tentativa de compilação do conhecimento atual sobre conceitos e transformações que ocorrem naturalmente no corpo humano e que caracterizam o que se define, hoje, como envelhecimento biológico saudável, com qualidade de vida e longevidade. Vários autores definem envelhecimento natural como um processo contínuo e ininterrupto, que ocorre no corpo humano provocando mudanças estruturais e funcionais, qualificadas como cumulativas, progressivas, intrínsecas e deletérias (CUPID). Normalmente, essas alterações começam muito cedo na vida e culminam na morte física. Mudanças de natureza genética, química e bioquímica conduzem a degradações progressivas das células, dos tecidos e órgãos, dos sistemas e do organismo como um todo, promovendo, com a idade, perdas de estruturas e funções. Todas estas alterações foram discutidas, em algum detalhe, ao longo da revisão apresentada. Concluiu-se que o envelhecimento não é geneticamente programado, resultando no acúmulo de danos celulares e teciduais, particularmente na cromatina e no DNA, no interior das células, e nas proteínas estruturais e bioativas, que comandam o metabolismo geral. Fatores ambientais, como alimentação (nutrição) e estilo de vida, também foram discutidos.
Abstract The main objective of this literature review was to summarize and characterize the main factors and events that may negatively influence quality of life and human longevity. The factors that act on premature aging processes are essentially the same as those of natural or healthy aging, but in a more intense and uncontrolled manner. Such factors are: 1) genetic (genome); 2) metabolic (metabolome); 3) environmental (life conditions and style, including diet). Factors 1 and 2 are more difficult to control by individuals; once depending on socioeconomic, cultural and educational conditions. Differently of environmental factors that may be totally controlled by individuals. Unfamiliarity with these factors leads to chronic and/or degenerative diseases that compromise quality of life and longevity.
Resumo O principal objetivo desta revisão da literatura foi resumir e caracterizar os principais fatores e eventos que podem influenciar negativamente a qualidade de vida e a longevidade humana. Os fatores que atuam nos processos de envelhecimento prematuro são essencialmente os mesmos que aqueles relacionados ao envelhecimento saudável ou natural, mas em uma maior intensidade ou maneira descontrolada. Tais fatores são: 1) genéticos (genoma); 2) metabólicos (metaboloma); 3) ambientais (condições e estilos de vida, incluindo a alimentação). Os fatores dos itens 1 e 2 são mais difíceis de ser controlados, pois dependem das condições socioeconômicas, culturais e educacionais. Diferentemente dos fatores ambientais que podem ser controlados pelo indivíduo. A falta de familiaridade com esses fatores leva a doenças crônicas e/ou degenerativas que comprometem a qualidade de vida e a longevidade.
Abstract The main objective of this review was to describe and emphasize the care that a woman must have in the period prior to pregnancy, as well as throughout pregnancy and after the birth of the baby, cares and duties that should continue to be followed by mother and child throughout the first years of the child’s life. Such cares are of nutritional, behavioral and lifestyle natures, and also involve the father and the whole family. Human development, from conception to maturity, consists of a critical and important period due to the multitude of intrinsic genetic and environmental factors that influence, positively or negatively, the person's entire life. The human being, who originated and passed his/her first phase of development in the womb, receives influence from different factors: a) of parental origin (father and mother), including health and lifestyle of the father and mother, genetic inheritance, nutrition of the mother prior to and during pregnancy; b) events that affected the mother and hence the child under development in intrauterine life, at birth (delivery), during perinatal period, and throughout the early years of life. The fragility of development continues throughout the preschool, school and adolescent periods during which proper nutrition with a balanced lifestyle is essential and depends on guidance from the parents, caregivers and teachers.
Resumo O principal objetivo desta revisão é descrever ‒ além de enfatizar ‒ o cuidado que a mulher deve ter no período anterior à gravidez, bem como durante toda a gravidez e após o nascimento do bebê. Tais cuidados e deveres devem permanecer com a mãe e a criança nos primeiros anos de vida. Estes cuidados são de natureza nutricional, comportamental e de estilo de vida, e também envolvem o pai e toda a família. O desenvolvimento humano, desde a concepção até a maturidade, consiste em um período crítico e importante devido à multiplicidade de fatores genéticos e ambientais intrínsecos, que influenciam, positiva ou negativamente, a vida da pessoa em toda a sua longevidade. O ser humano, que é originário e tem sua primeira fase de desenvolvimento no útero, recebe influência de diferentes fatores: a) origem parental (pai e mãe), incluindo saúde e estilo de vida do pai e da mãe, herança genética, nutrição da mãe antes e durante a gravidez; b) eventos que podem ocorrer com a mãe e que afetam a criança em desenvolvimento na vida intrauterina, no parto (nascimento), no período perinatal e nos primeiros anos de vida. A fragilidade no desenvolvimento continua nos períodos pré-escolar, escolar e de adolescência, nos quais uma nutrição adequada, com um estilo de vida equilibrado, é essencial e dependente da orientação dos pais, cuidadores e professores.
The objective of this work was to study the effect of adding wheat fiber and partial pork back fat on the quality characteristics of bologna sausage. The compound central rotating design was used with treatments containing fixed levels of inulin (5%) and oat fiber (1%) and variable levels of wheat fiber (0-4%) and pork back fat (0-10%). The pH and protein were similar in all the treatments, the fat was lower than the control treatment and the moisture content was higher than the control treatment (CF) without fibers. The wheat fiber increased the hardness and reduced cohesiveness and scores were given for overall impression. We found that it was possible to prepare low-fat bologna sausage with the addition of 6.58% fiber (5% inulin, 1% oat fiber and 0.58% wheat fiber), whilst retaining good sensory acceptability, thus reducing the pork back fat levels by between 25 and 42.75%.
This study aimed to investigate the nutritional quality and bioactive potential of partially defatted baru (Dipteryx alataVog.) almond flour (BAF). The flour’s proximate and mineral compositions, total phenolic, tocopherols and carotenoids contents, antioxidant capacity, trypsin inhibitor and amino acid analyses were performed. An experiment was conducted with 24 male Wistar rats in order to evaluate the flour’s protein quality. BAF has high protein, fiber and mineral contents (iron, zinc, magnesium and copper), and it is a source of calcium. BAF presented relevant amounts of total phenolics (625 mg/100g) and good antioxidant capacity (130 µmol/Trolox eq). Autoclaved BAF showed essential amino acids profile, digestibility and protein quality better than in natura BAF. Autoclaved BAF might be used for human consumption as a source of quality protein and bioactive compounds, in healthy diets and processed foods.
This research aimed at evaluating the suitability of five different garlic cultivars for the processing of unsalted garlic paste, chopped fried garlic, and fried sliced garlic. The concentration of allicin in the products was evaluated immediately after processing and at 45-day intervals during 180 days of storage. Allicin concentrations in raw garlic of the varieties under study differed (20.73 a 24.31mg of allicin g- 1 garlic). Stability exhibited a similar between the varieties according to the type of processing utilized. Processing into paste was more favorable to the preservation of allicin than the other processes. The amount of allicin lost during the process to obtain paste for the different varieties was less than 9.5%, and it reached a maximum loss of 22% for the commercial varieties during storage (180 days). All fried garlic samples showed a decrease by 99% in the content of allicin right after processing. The processing of garlic in the form of acidified paste preserved its bioactive characteristics during storage.
The aim of this study was to analyze the proximate and mineral composition of 21 types of biscuits. All biscuits showed high fat contents, significantly different (P < 0.05) from those described on the labels, except for three brands. Insoluble fiber fractions were predominant in the analyzed samples. Among the 21 biscuits analyzed, 16 showed food label values 20% higher than those allowed by law, according to RDC 360, for fat, protein, total fiber, calcium, and sodium levels. This difference reached 273% for the sodium content. The calcium content was included only on the label of three samples analyzed, and the values described were significantly lower than those obtained analytically. Considering that biscuits are consumed by people of all age groups and of different socioeconomic levels, the results can contribute to the plans for health policies, such as surveillance of nutritional labeling, ensuring the reliability of the information provided by the food industry and enabling the identification of the relationship between dietary factors and the occurrence of non-transmissible chronic diseases.