Abstract The exponential increase in the request for laboratory tests of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D or [25 (OH) D has ignited the alarms and generated a strong call for attention, since it may reflect deficiencies in the standardization of clinical practice and in the use non-systematic scientific evidence for decision-making in real life, which allows to analyze the indications of the test, its frequency, interpretation and even to assess the impact for health systems, especially when contrasted with the minimum or almost. No effects of the strategy of screening or supplying indiscriminately to the general population, without considering a comprehensive clinical assessment of risks and needs of people. From a purely public health impact point of view, the consequence of massive and unspecified requests is affecting most of the health systems and institutions at the global level. The primary studies that determined average population intake values have been widely used in the formulation of recommendations in Clinical Practice Guidelines, but unfortunately misinterpreted as cut points to diagnose disease and allow the exaggerated prescription of nutritional substitution. The coefficient of variation in routine tests to measure blood levels of 25 (OH) D is high (28%), decreasing the overall accuracy of the test and simultaneously, increasing both the falsely high and falsely low values. The most recent scientific evidence analyzes and seriously questions the usefulness and the real effect of the massive and indiscriminate practice of prescribing vitamin D without an exhaustive risk analysis. The available evidence is insufficient to recommend a general substitution of vitamin D to prevent fractures, falls, changes in bone mineral density, incidence of cardiovascular diseases, cerebrovascular disease, neoplasms and also to modify the growth curve of mothers' children. They received vitamin D as a substitute during pregnancy. The recommendations presented in the document are based on the critical analysis of current evidence and the principles of good clinical practice and invite to consider a rational use of 25 (OH) D tests in the context of a clinical practice focused on people and a comprehensive assessment of needs and risks. The principles of good practice suggest that clinicians may be able to justify that the results of the 25 (OH) D test strongly influence and define clinical practice and modify the outcomes that interest people and impact their health and wellness. Currently there is no clarity on how to interpret the results, and the relationship between symptoms and 25 (OH) D levels, which may not be consistent with the high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency reported. For this reason, it is suggested to review the rationale of the request for tests for systematic monitoring of levels of 25 (OH) D or in all cases where substitution is performed. Consider the use of 25 (OH) D tests within the comprehensive evaluation of people with suspicion or confirmation of the following conditions: rickets, osteomalacia, osteoporosis, hyper or hypoparathyroidism, malabsorption syndromes, sarcopenia, metabolic bone disease.
In order to establish an approximation to the araneofauna in the Isla Gorgona, located in the Pacific Ocean at approximately 60 km from the SW coast of Colombia, we took samples in July 2003, using various methods such as capturing the spiders manually, pitfall traps, sweeping with an entomological net, and beating foliage. The samples were taken during the day and night, at four different levels of vertical stratification, in six different habitat which had different states of succession. Sixty-five samples were taken; 1398 spiders were collected and placed in 247 morphospecies, which belong to 34 families. The data were analyzed with 7 species richness estimators: ACE, ICE, Chao 1, Chao 2, first order Jack-knife, second-order Jack-knife, and Bootstrap. The richness estimators varied between each other, with bootstrap having the lowest value (302) and ICE having the highest (504). The failure of the observed species accumulation curve to find an asymptote, showed that more sampling is needed. The most effective method applied was manual collection, with which 33 of the 34 families were collected. The Bray-Curtis similarity index showed that similarity between habitat is very small. Even though Gorgona has a small extension, it presents a high diversity of spiders, which is reflected in the number of families, that is equivalent to 71% of those found in the whole country.
Para poder establecer una aproximación a la araneofauna de la Isla Gorgona, ubicada en el Océano Pacifico a 60 km de la costa SO de Colombia, tomamos muestras durante el mes de julio del 2003, empleando métodos de captura directa (manual), barridos con red entomológica (sweeping), agitación de follaje (beating) y trampas de caída (pitfall). Los muestreos se realizaron en jornadas diurnas y nocturnas en cuatro niveles de estratificación vertical, los cuales fueron llevados a cabo en seis tipos de habitat contrastantes de acuerdo con su grado de intervención. Fueron tomadas 65 muestras, colectados 1398 individuos agrupados en 247 morfoespecies, pertenecientes a 34 familias. Los datos fueron analizados con 7 estimadores de riqueza: ACE, ICE, Chao 1, Chao 2, Jack-knife de primer orden, Jack-knife de segundo orden y Bootstrap. Los índices de riqueza variaron entre sí, con Bootstrap obteniendo el valor más bajo (302) e ICE obteniendo el más alto (504). La curva de acumulación de especies nunca llegó a una asíntota, demostrando que el muestreo fue insuficiente. El método de captura más efectivo fue la colecta manual, ya que con este método se registraron 33 de las 34 familias encontradas. El índice de Bray-Curtis indicó que la similitud entre los hábitat es muy pequeña. A pesar de comprender un área relativamente pequeña, la Isla Gorgona aloja una significativa diversidad de arañas, lo cual se refleja por que en cuanto a familias se pudo detectar el equivalente al 71% de las reportadas para el país.