Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate a possible synergism between AGE-RAGE and TLR4 signaling and the role of p38 MAPK and NF-kB signaling pathways on the modulation of the expression of inflammatory cytokines and proliferation of cells from the innate and adaptive immune response. Material and Methods: T lymphocyte (JM) and monocyte (U937) cell lines were stimulated with LPS and AGE-BSA independently and associated, both in the presence and absence of p38 MAPK and NF-kB inhibitors. Proliferation was assessed by direct counting and viability was assessed by a biochemical assay of mitochondrial function. Cytokine gene expression for RAGe, CCL3, CCR5, IL-6 and TNF-α was studied by RT-PCR and RT-qPCR. Results: RAGE mRNA expression was detected in both cell lines. LPS and AGE-BSA did not influence cell proliferation and viability of either cell line up to 72 hours. LPS and LPS associated with AGE induced expression of IL-6 and TNF-α in monocytes and T cells, respectively. Conclusions: There is no synergistic effect between RAGE and TLR signaling on the expression of IL-6, TNF-α , RAGE, CCR5 and CCL3 by monocytes and lymphocytes. Activation of RAGE associated or not with TLR signaling also had no effect on cell proliferation and survival of these cell types.
The present study investigated the effect of non-surgical periodontal treatment (SRP) on the composition of the subgingival microbiota of chronic periodontitis (CP) in individuals with type 2 diabetes (DM2) with inadequate metabolic control and in systemically healthy (SH) individuals. Forty individuals (20 DM2 and 20 SH) with CP underwent full-mouth periodontal examination. Subgingival plaque was sampled from 4 deep sites of each individual and tested for mean prevalence and counts of 45 bacterial taxa by the checkerboard method. Clinical and microbiological assessments were performed before and 3 months after SRP. At baseline, those in the DM2 group presented a significantly higher percentage of sites with visible plaque and bleeding on probing compared with those in the SH group (p < 0.01). Those in the DM2 group presented significantly higher levels of C. rectus and P. gingivalis, and lower prevalence of P. micra and S. anginosus, compared with those in the SH group (p ≤ 0.001). At the 3-month visit, both groups showed a significant improvement in all clinical parameters (p < 0.01). Those in the DM2 group showed significantly higher prevalence and/or levels of A. gerencseriae, A. naeslundii I, A. oris, A. odontolyticus, C. sputigena, F. periodonticum, and G. morbillorum compared with those in the SH group (p ≤ 0.001). However, those in the DM2 group showed a significant reduction in the levels of P. intermedia, P. gingivalis, T. forsythia, and T. denticola (p ≤ 0.001) over time. Those in the SRP group showed improved periodontal status and reduced levels of putative periodontal pathogens at 3 months’ evaluation compared with those in the DM2 group with inadequate metabolic control.
INTRODUCTION: It is suggested that individuals with diabetes are more susceptible to Candida infections than healthy people, especially if periodontal infection is associated. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the prevalence of colonization by Candida spp. during radiographic examination in diabetic and non-diabetic patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-six patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and 20 patients without diabetes mellitus, presenting chronic periodontitis and presence of Candida spp. in saliva were evaluated. During radiographic examination, samples of saliva were collected from: oral mucosa, conventional radiographic periapical film, digital x-ray sensor (CDR), and bite block of the receptor-positioning device. Colony forming units (cfu/mL) and identification of Candida yeasts were assessed. RESULT: Oral mucosa from both groups showed the highest colonization with Candida spp. if compared with others surfaces collected (p < 0.05). In diabetic patients, the mucosa of the upper left regions showed higher levels of colonization. In non-diabetic patients, the upper right molar region showed the highest level of colonization during the examination of the receptor-positioning device, the sensor and the non-sensitive film. Candida spp. levels in saliva were similar between diabetics (mean = 3.0 × 10(6)) and non-diabetics (mean = 3.8 × 10(6)). CONCLUSION: No difference in Candida spp. colonization (cfu/mL) in diabetics and non-diabetic patients was observed for the five collected surfaces and the simulated radiographic region. Candida albicans was the prevalent species of Candida spp. found on all the samples.
INTRODUÇÃO: Relata-se que indivíduos diabéticos são mais susceptíveis a infecções por Candida que indivíduos saudáveis, especialmente se doença periodontal estiver associada. OBJETIVO: Este estudo propôs avaliar a prevalência de colonização por Candida spp. durante o exame radiográfico em pacientes diabéticos e não diabéticos. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Vinte e seis pacientes com Diabetes mellitus do tipo 2 e 20 pacientes sem Diabetes mellitus, apresentando periodontite crônica e Candida spp. na saliva, foram avaliados. Durante o exame radiográfico, amostras de saliva foram coletas: da mucosa oral, do filme radiográfico periapical convencional, sensor radiográfico digital (CDR) e bloco de mordida do posicionador de filmes. Unidades formadoras de colônia (cfu/mL) e identificação das leveduras do gênero Candida foram avaliadas. RESULTADO: A mucosa oral de ambos os grupos mostrou maior colonização por Candida spp. quando comparada com outras superfícies coletadas (p < 0.05). Nos pacientes diabéticos, a mucosa da região esquerda superior mostrou níveis mais altos de colonização. Nos pacientes não diabéticos, a região de molar superior direito mostrou o nível mais alto de colonização durante o exame no posicionador, no sensor e no lado do filme periapical que não fica voltado para a radiação X. Os níveis de Candida spp. na saliva foram similares entre diabéticos (média = 3.0 × 10(6)) e não diabéticos (média = 3.8 × 10(6)). CONCLUSÃO: Nenhuma diferença na colonização por Candida spp. (cfu/mL) em pacientes diabéticos e não diabéticos foi observada nas cinco superfícies coletadas e nas regiões radiográficas simuladas. Candida albicans foi a espécie prevalente de Candida spp. encontrada em todas as amostras.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of diltiazem in combination with a sucrose-rich diet on gingival alterations in rats. One hundred and twenty male Holtzman rats were randomly assigned to 10 groups (n = 12), being 2 control groups treated with saline and 8 test groups treated with diltiazem in daily doses of 5, 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg during 40 or 60 days. Afterwards, the mandibles were removed for macroscopic, histologic and histometric analyses of the buccal gingiva of the mandibular right first molar. No macroscopic characteristic of gingival overgrowth was observed in any of the groups. The microscopic analysis showed characteristics of normality with inflammatory cells only adjacent to the crevicular epithelium in all groups for both periods. The histometric analysis showed significant differences only for the epithelial tissue area in the 40-day period (Kruskal-Wallis; P = 0.032). Comparing the periods, significant differences regarding the connective and epithelial tissue areas were observed only in the group treated with a 25 mg/kg dose (Mann-Whitney; P = 0.004 and P = 0.007, respectively). Oral administration of diltiazem in combination with a sucrose-rich diet did not induce gingival alterations in rats.
The administration of calcium channel blockers has been associated with gingival overgrowth. However, there are few studies in humans or animals that evaluated the effect of diltiazem on gingival tissues. The present study assessed the influence of diltiazem, at different dosages and treatment duration, on gingival tissues of rats, using clinical, histological and histometric analyses. Eighty young male rats were separated into eight groups according to the dosage and duration of treatment. Rats were treated for 20 or 40 days with a daily subcutaneous injection of 5, 20 or 50 mg/kg of body weight of diltiazem. The results confirmed that diltiazem did not induce gingival overgrowth in rats. For all animals, the evaluation did not show gingival alterations regardless of the dosages and periods of treatment. The histometric analysis showed no significant change in the area of epithelium and connective tissues, although after 40 days of treatment a decrease in the area of connective tissue was observed, without statistically significant difference from control groups. Within the limits of this study, we suggest that diltiazem did not induce gingival overgrowth.
A administração de bloqueadores dos canais de cálcio tem sido associada com crescimento gengival; entretanto, existem poucos estudos em humanos e animais que avaliaram o efeito do diltiazem nos tecidos gengivais. O presente trabalho tem como objetivo avaliar o efeito do diltiazem, em diferentes dosagens e tempos de tratamento, no tecido gengival de ratos, por meio de análises clínica, histológica e histométrica. Oitenta ratos jovens machos foram divididos em oito grupos de acordo com a dosagem e o tempo de administração. Os animais foram tratados por 20 ou 40 dias com uma dosagem diária de diltiazem de 5, 20 ou 50 mg/kg de peso corporal, por via subcutânea. Os resultados confirmaram que o diltiazem não induziu crescimento gengival em ratos. Para todos os animais a avaliação não demonstrou alterações gengivais, independentemente da dosagem e do período de tratamento. A análise histométrica evidenciou ausência de alteração significante na área de tecidos epitelial e conjuntivo, embora, após 40 dias de tratamento, tenha sido observada diminuição na área de tecido conjuntivo, não significante estatisticamente. Dentro dos limites deste estudo, sugerimos que o diltiazem não induziu crescimento gengival.