Abstract Intraspecies or interspecies crossings transfer relevant alleles between plants. However, some interspecies crossings involving Passiflora species impede ovule fertilization and the viable development of seeds. Thus, the purpose of this study was to verify the viability of interspecific crossings and monitor pollen tube development. The experiment had six species of Passiflora in the reciprocal crossings. Histochemical tests aimed to evaluate the percentage of intraspecies or interspecies crossings that resulted in fruit development and pollen tube development. Ovule fertilization and fruit development occurred in determined directions of crossings when controlling the female or male genitor, but only one case of reciprocal crossing had success. In crossings with no fruit development, histological analysis showed that some callus developed in the stigma and style, confirming unilateral and interspecies incompatibility in the genus Passiflora to some species and some directions of crossings.
Abstract An updated inventory of Brazilian seed plants is presented and offers important insights into the country's biodiversity. This work started in 2010, with the publication of the Plants and Fungi Catalogue, and has been updated since by more than 430 specialists working online. Brazil is home to 32,086 native Angiosperms and 23 native Gymnosperms, showing an increase of 3% in its species richness in relation to 2010. The Amazon Rainforest is the richest Brazilian biome for Gymnosperms, while the Atlantic Rainforest is the richest one for Angiosperms. There was a considerable increment in the number of species and endemism rates for biomes, except for the Amazon that showed a decrease of 2.5% of recorded endemics. However, well over half of Brazillian seed plant species (57.4%) is endemic to this territory. The proportion of life-forms varies among different biomes: trees are more expressive in the Amazon and Atlantic Rainforest biomes while herbs predominate in the Pampa, and lianas are more expressive in the Amazon, Atlantic Rainforest, and Pantanal. This compilation serves not only to quantify Brazilian biodiversity, but also to highlight areas where there information is lacking and to provide a framework for the challenge faced in conserving Brazil's unique and diverse flora.
Resumo Um levantamento atualizado das plantas com sementes e análises relevantes acerca desta biodiversidade são apresentados. Este trabalho se iniciou em 2010 com a publicação do Catálogo de Plantas e Fungos e, desde então vem sendo atualizado por mais de 430 especialistas trabalhando online. O Brasil abriga atualmente 32.086 espécies nativas de Angiospermas e 23 espécies nativas de Gimnospermas e estes novos dados mostram um aumento de 3% da riqueza em relação a 2010. A Amazônia é o Domínio Fitogeográfico com o maior número de espécies de Gimnospermas, enquanto que a Floresta Atlântica possui a maior riqueza de Angiospermas. Houve um crescimento considerável no número de espécies e nas taxas de endemismo para a maioria dos Domínios (Caatinga, Cerrado, Floresta Atlântica, Pampa e Pantanal), com exceção da Amazônia que apresentou uma diminuição de 2,5% de endemicidade. Entretanto, a maior parte das plantas com sementes que ocorrem no Brasil (57,4%) é endêmica deste território. A proporção de formas de vida varia de acordo com os diferentes Domínios: árvores são mais expressivas na Amazônia e Floresta Atlântica do que nos outros biomas, ervas são dominantes no Pampa e as lianas apresentam riqueza expressiva na Amazônia, Floresta Atlântica e Pantanal. Este trabalho não só quantifica a biodiversidade brasileira, mas também indica as lacunas de conhecimento e o desafio a ser enfrentado para a conservação desta flora.
Stevia is used as a sweetener due to its low calorific value and its taste, which is very similar to that of sucrose. After extraction from dried leaves, stevia extract is dark in colour, and therefore needs to be whitened to increase acceptance by consumers. In this study we tested chitosan, a cationic polyelectrolyte, as flocculant agent for the whitening of the Stevia extract. Positive charges of chitosan can interact electrostatically with a counter-ion, sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP), and then chitosan precipitates. A factorial design was used to study the whitening process, in which Glycosides Removal, Colour Removal, Turbidity Removal and Soluble Solids Removal were evaluated. The studied factors were Chitosan Mass and pH of the TPP solution. The results showed that chitosan is a good flocculant agent, being able to flocculate both the glycosides and the pigments that make the extract coloured.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to characterize Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriage in a dermatology unit. METHODS: This was a prospective and descriptive study. Over the course of 26 weeks, surveillance cultures were collected weekly from the anterior nares and skin of all patients hospitalized in a 20-bed dermatology unit of a tertiary-care hospital. Samples from healthcare workers (HCWS) were cultured at the beginning and end of the study. Colonized patients were put under contact precautions, and basic infection control measures were enforced. Staphylococcus aureus colonization pressure was determined monthly. Colonized and non-colonized patients were compared, and isolates were evaluated for antimicrobial susceptibility, SCCmec type, virulence factors, and type. RESULTS: Of the 142 patients evaluated, 64 (45%) were colonized by MRSA (39% hospital acquired; 25% community acquired; 36% indeterminate). Despite isolation precautions, hospital-acquired Staphylococcus aureus occurred in addition to the continuous entry of Staphylococcus aureus from the community. Colonization pressure increased from 13% to 59%, and pemphigus and other bullous diseases were associated with MRSA colonization. Eleven out of 71 HCWs (15%) were Staphylococcus aureus carriers, although only one worker carried a persistent clone. Of the hospital-acquired MRSA cases, 14/28 (50%) were SCCmec type IV (3 PFGE types), 13 were SCCmec type III (46%), and one had an indeterminate type. These types were also present among the community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus isolates. SSCmec type IV isolates were shown to be more susceptible than type III isolates. There were two cases of bloodstream infection, and the pvl and tst virulence genes were absent from all isolates. CONCLUSIONS: Dermatology patients were colonized by community- and hospital-acquired Staphylococcus aureus. Half of the nosocomial Staphylococcus aureus isolates were SCCmec type IV. Despite the identification of colonized patients and the subsequent contact precautions and room placement, Staphylococcus aureus colonization continued to occur, and colonization pressure increased. Pemphigus and other bullous diseases were associated with Staphylococcus aureus.
The free radical scavenging activity (FRS) using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), the reducer power and the total phenolic concentration of extracts and compounds isolated from leaves, branches and roots of Maytenus imbricata Mart. (Celastraceae) were evaluated. Some extracts, a mixture of phenolic compounds (MPC) and epicatechin showed higher RP and FRS (DPPH) activities in comparison with the standard butylhydroxyanisole (BHA) and galic acid (GA) used in assays. The ethyl acetate extract from leaves showed higher total phenolic content and also higher RP and FRS (DPPH) than the other extracts. These facts indicate that there are some relations between phenolic concentration in the extract and the antioxidant activity and the reducer power. The solvent used in the extraction process influences the chemical composition of the extracts and consequently its antioxidant and reducer power activities.
A atividade antioxidante, poder redutor (RP) e a atividade coletora de radicais livres (FRS) usando 2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidrazil (DPPH), e a concentração de substâncias fenólicas totais dos extratos e substâncias isoladas das folhas, caules e raízes de Maytenus imbricata Mart. (Celastraceae) foram avaliados. Alguns extratos, a mistura de compostos fenólicos e epicatequina mostraram alto poder redutor e atividade antioxidante (DPPH) em comparação com o padrão butilhidroxianisol (BHA) e ácido gálhico (GA) utilizados no ensaio. O extrato acetato de etila das folhas mosraram alto teor de substâncias fenólicas e alto poder redutor e atividade antioxidante em relação aos outros extratos. Este fato indica haver alguma relação entre a concentração de substâncias fenólicas e o poder redutor. O solvente usado no processo de extração influencia a composição química dos extratos e, consequentemente, as atividades redutoras e antioxidantes.
Several candidate gene studies have demonstrated that genetic polymorphisms in cytokine genes contribute to variations in the levels of cytokines produced and this variation may influence the occurrence and severity of complications after stem cell transplantation (HSCT). In this work we compared the serum concentrations of TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-10, and TGF-β1 in 13 recipients following HSCT with the TNF-308, IFNG+874, IL6-174, IL10-1082,-819,-592, and TGFB1+869,+915 polymorphisms. Serum cytokine levels were assessed using commercial ELISA kits for TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-10, and TGF-β1 (BioSource®, Nivelles, Belgium, Europe). Donor/recipient genotypes for these cytokine polymorphisms were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-sequence-specific primer (PCR-SSP) with the Cytokine Genotyping Primers Kit (One Lambda , Canoga Park, CA, USA). We found correlation between the levels of IL-6 and IL-10 concentrations following HSCT and the IL6-174 and IL10-1082,-819,-592 polymorphisms, but not for other cytokines investigated in this study. Those with genotypes associated with low production of IL-6 and IL-10 produced lower levels of these cytokines than those with genotypes associated with high or intermediate production of these cytokines (P < 0.05).
Estudos de vários genes candidatos têm demonstrado que polimorfismos genéticos em genes de citocinas contribuem com variações nos níveis de citocinas produzidas e esta variação pode influenciar a ocorrência e gravidade de complicações após o transplante de células-tronco hematopoéticas (TCTH). Neste trabalho comparamos as concentrações séricas de TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-10 e TGF-β 1 em 13 receptores seguindo o TCTH com os polimorfismos TNF-308, IFNG+874, IL6-174, IL10-1082,-819,-592 e TGFB1+869,+915. Os níveis séricos de citocinas foram medidos usando-se kits comerciais de ELISA para TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-10 e TGF-β 1 (BioSource®, Nivelles, Belgium, Europe). Os genótipos de doadores/receptores para estes polimorfismos de citocinas foram analisados pela reação em cadeia da polimerase com sequências específicas de primer (PCR-SSP) com o kit Cytokine Genotyping Primers (One Lambda, Canoga Park, CA, USA). Encontramos correlação entre os níveis de IL-6 e IL-10 seguindo o TCTH e os polimorfismos IL6-174 e IL10-1082,-819,-592, mas não para outras citocinas investigadas neste estudo. Aqueles com genótipos relativos à baixa produção de IL-6 e IL-10 produziram mais baixos níveis destas citocinas que aqueles com genótipos relativos à produção alta e/ou intermediária destas citocinas (P < 0,05).