Abstract The Program for Biodiversity Research (PPBio) is an innovative program designed to integrate all biodiversity research stakeholders. Operating since 2004, it has installed long-term ecological research sites throughout Brazil and its logic has been applied in some other southern-hemisphere countries. The program supports all aspects of research necessary to understand biodiversity and the processes that affect it. There are presently 161 sampling sites (see some of them at Supplementary Appendix), most of which use a standardized methodology that allows comparisons across biomes and through time. To date, there are about 1200 publications associated with PPBio that cover topics ranging from natural history to genetics and species distributions. Most of the field data and metadata are available through PPBio web sites or DataONE. Metadata is available for researchers that intend to explore the different faces of Brazilian biodiversity spatio-temporal variation, as well as for managers intending to improve conservation strategies. The Program also fostered, directly and indirectly, local technical capacity building, and supported the training of hundreds of undergraduate and graduate students. The main challenge is maintaining the long-term funding necessary to understand biodiversity patterns and processes under pressure from global environmental changes.
Abstract Background: Cigarette smoking is usually associated with hypertension and may modify vasoconstrictor response. Objective: The present study aimed to analyze and compare the interaction of passive cigarette smoking and hypertension on epinephrine and felypressin blood pressure effects after intravascular injection. Method: 45-day male Wistar rats had the main left renal artery partially constricted and the right kidney removed (1K1C model). Rats were placed in the chamber for exposition to passive cigarette smoking (10 cigarettes) during 10 min (6 days a week). Hypertensive rats received atenolol (90 mg/kg/day) by gavage for two weeks. Hypotensive and hypertensive response, response duration and heart rate were recorded from direct blood pressure values. The significance level was 5%. Results: Passive cigarette smoking increased maximal hypertensive response to epinephrine in normotensive and 1K1C-atenolol treated rats and to felypressin only in 1K1C-atenolol treated rats; it also reduced epinephrine hypotensive response. Epinephrine increased heart rate in normotensive and hypertensive passive smokers or non-smoker rats. Comparing the two vasoconstrictors, epinephrine showed greater hypertensive response in normotensive smokers, 1K1C-atenolol treated smokers and non-smokers. However, in normotensive-nonsmoker rats, felypressin showed a greater and longer hypertensive effect. Conclusions: Our results suggest that passive cigarette smoking may reduce epinephrine vasodilation and increase hypertensive response when compared to felypressin. Therefore, felypressin may be safe for hypertensive patients to avoid tachycardia and atenolol interaction, but for normotensive and non-smoker patients, epinephrine may be safer than felypressin.
Resumo Fundamento: O tabagismo geralmente está associado à hipertensão e pode modificar a resposta vasoconstritora. Objetivo: O presente estudo teve como objetivo analisar e comparar a interação do tabagismo passivo e hipertensão sobre os efeitos da epinefrina e felipressina na pressão arterial após injeção intravascular. Métodos: Ratos Wistar machos de 45 dias tiveram a artéria renal principal esquerda parcialmente obstruída e o rim direito removido (modelo 1K1C). Os ratos foram colocados na câmara para exposição ao tabagismo passivo (10 cigarros) durante 10 minutos (6 dias por semana). Ratos hipertensos receberam atenolol (90 mg/kg/dia) por gavagem durante duas semanas. A resposta hipotensora e hipertensiva, a duração da resposta e a frequência cardíaca foram registradas a partir da medida dos valores diretos da pressão arterial. O nível de significância foi de 5%. Resultados: O tabagismo passivo aumentou a resposta hipertensiva máxima à epinefrina em ratos normotensos e ratos 1K1C tratados com atenolol e à felipressina apenas em ratos 1K1C tratados com atenolol; também reduziu a resposta hipotensiva à epinefrina. A epinefrina aumentou a frequência cardíaca em ratos fumantes passivos ou não-fumantes, normotensos e hipertensos. Comparando os dois vasoconstritores, a epinefrina apresentou maior resposta hipertensiva em fumantes normotensos, ratos 1K1C fumantes e não fumantes tratados com atenolol. No entanto, em ratos normotensos e não fumantes, a felipressina apresentou um efeito hipertensivo maior e mais prolongado. Conclusões: Nossos resultados sugerem que o tabagismo passivo pode reduzir a vasodilatação da epinefrina e aumentar a resposta hipertensiva quando comparado à felipressina. Portanto, a felipressina pode ser segura para pacientes hipertensos, com o objetivo de evitar a interação entre taquicardia e atenolol, mas para pacientes normotensos e não-fumantes, a epinefrina pode ser mais segura que a felipressina.
Abstract: Objective: the aim of this study is to map thermal stress risks for human health at the São Francisco River Basin (SFRB) in the Semiarid region, for climatic scenarios RCP 4.5 and 8.5. Methods: The heat stress conditions were defined by the Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) indicator and by the average number of annual days in which the WBGT values exceeded the 90th percentile of the reference period. The WBGT was estimated for the climate scenarios RCP 4.5 (intermediate) and 8.5 (pessimistic) for the period 2011-2090 comparing to the period of reference (1961-2005). Results: The projections show that for the pessimistic scenario practically all municipalities of the SFRB region can reach values of WBGT that indicate a high risk for heat stress in the period 2071-2099. For this same scenario and period, the municipalities of the Lower and Under-average regions may present values of WBGT above the 90th percentile of the reference period in more than 90% of the days/year. Conclusions: These results show that, if the emission of greenhouse gases continues in the present proportions, some municipalities of the SFRB region may present a high risk for heat stress affecting the work capacity and the practice of physical exercises.
Abstract Zonotrichia capensis is widely distributed in the Neotropics. Previous cytogenetic studies demonstrated the presence of polymorphisms in two chromosome pairs (ZCA2 and ZCA4). Here, we report results based on comparative chromosome painting, using probes derived from Gallus gallus and Leucopternis albicollis, focused on characterizing the chromosome organization of Z. capensis. Our results demonstrate the conservation of ancestral syntenies as observed previously in other species of passerine. Syntenies were rearranged by a series of inversions in the second chromosome as described in other Passeriformes, but in this species, by using probes derived from L. albicollis we observed an extra inversion in the second chromosome that had not previously been reported. We also report a paracentric inversion in pair 3; this chromosome corresponds to the second chromosome in Zonotrichia albicollis and may indicate the presence of ancestral inversions in the genus. The chromosomal inversions we found might be important for understanding the phenotypic variation that exists throughout the distribution of Z. capensis.
The tinplate, used in the packaging sector and formed from a metal substrate, comprises a steel base which has undergone a surface treatment to produce a thin layer of FeSn2, a tin layer and an oxide tin layer. Currently, packaging using surface treatment is based on the use of chromates because these metals provide an excellent corrosion resistance. Nontoxic alternatives to pre-treatments have been developed in recent years to replace the chromate process. The aim of this work is to analyze the performance of a new hybrid organic-inorganic film obtained from sol-gel consisting of the alkoxide precursors 3-(Trimethoxysilylpropyl)methacrylate (TMSM) and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) with the addition of cerium nitrate with the scanning vibrating electrode technique (SVET), and electrochemical and morphological characterizations. Moreover, the evolution of the corrosion of the substrate was evaluated to propose a mechanism of corrosion. The results showed a galvanic coupling between the Sn/SnO2 coat (cathode) and the defects exposed at the ferrous base (anode). The organic-inorganic hybrid film containing a cathodic corrosion inhibitor was able to retard the corrosion of the tinplate.
Abstract: Pollination is a fundamental process to produce food and maintain biodiversity in natural areas, since the production of seeds is related to its efficiency. Studies can determine the influence of reproductive systems on seed and seedlings quality and, consequently, on the structure of populations, helping the management, plant breeding and preservation of species. Campomanesia pubescens (DC.) O. Berg. (guabiroba) is a Brazilian shrub, pollinated by bees and occasionally by dipterans. This work aimed at evaluating the influence of pollination and reproductive system on seed production and germination and on the seedlings quality of C. pubescens. Phenology and floral biology were studied, and fruits from controlled pollinations were collected, in the Mogi Guaçu Biological Reserve, São Paulo State. The germination of seeds originated from self- and cross-pollination were analyzed, as well as the development of seedlings up to 180 days after germination. Seeds from self-pollination produced seedlings with lower development than the ones from cross-pollination, and they were more susceptible to mortality in laboratory and in greenhouse.
Resumo: A polinização é um processo fundamental para produção de alimentos e para a manutenção da biodiversidade em áreas naturais, já que influencia diretamente a produção de sementes. O estudo da influência dos sistemas reprodutivos na qualidade das sementes e mudas e, consequentemente, na estrutura de populações, pode auxiliar o manejo, o melhoramento genético e a conservação de espécies. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a influência da polinização e da reprodução sobre a produção e a qualidade de sementes e mudas de Campomanesia pubescens (DC.) O. Berg (guabiroba), arbusto nativo do Brasil, polinizado por abelhas e ocasionalmente por dípteros. Estudaram-se a fenologia e a biologia floral e coletaram-se frutos, oriundos de polinizações controladas, na Reserva Biológica de Mogi Guaçu, São Paulo. A germinação e a qualidade das sementes originadas de autopolinização e de polinização cruzada foram analisadas, bem como o desenvolvimento das mudas até 180 dias. As sementes oriundas de autopolinização deram origem a plântulas com desenvolvimento inferior às de polinização cruzada e mais susceptíveis a mortalidade tanto em laboratório quanto em casa de vegetação.
ABSTRACT The objective of this work was to verify the response of basil cultivars to the salinity of irrigation water during the period from January 15 to March 20, 2013, in a greenhouse, at the Federal Rural University of the Semi-Arid, Mossoró, RN, Brazil. The experimental design was completely randomized, with treatments arranged in 2 x 4 factorial scheme, constituted of two cultivars of basil (‘Verde’ and ‘Roxo’) and four levels of irrigation water salinity (0.5; 2.0; 3.5 and 5.0 dS m-1), with four replicates. The plants were collected at 65 days after transplanting and the following variables were evaluated: stem diameter; plant height; number of stems and leaves; leaf area; dry matter of leaves, stems, roots, and total dry matter. The increase in salinity was detrimental to all variables evaluated in both cultivars, but the cultivar ‘Roxo’ proved to be more tolerant than the cultivar ‘Verde’. Both cultivars are tolerant to irrigation water salinity of up to 1.5 dS m-1.
RESUMO O objetivo do trabalho foi verificar as respostas de cultivares de manjericão à salinidade da água de irrigação, no período de 15 de janeiro a 20 de março de 2013, em casa de vegetação, na Universidade Federal Rural do Semiárido, Mossoró, RN. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado e os tratamentos arranjados em esquema fatorial 2 x 4, relativo a duas cultivares de manjericão (Verde e Roxo) e quatro níveis de salinidade (0,5; 2,0; 3,5 e 5,0 dS m-1), com quatro repetições. As variáveis avaliadas foram diâmetro do caule e altura das plantas, número de hastes, número de folhas e área foliar, massa seca de folhas, hastes, raiz e total. O aumento da salinidade prejudicou todas as variáveis avaliadas em ambas as cultivares, mas a cultivar Roxo mostrou-se mais tolerante que a cultivar Verde; as duas cultivares são tolerantes à salinidade da água de irrigação até 1,5 dS m-1.
Objective: To study the co-occurrence of psychiatric disorders (PD) and communication disorders (CD) and their relationship with global functioning in maltreated children and adolescents. Methods: The sample comprised 143 maltreated children and adolescents (55.8% male). All underwent clinical communication and psychiatric evaluations, as well as global functioning assessment using the Children’s Global Assessment Scale (C-GAS). Results: Four groups emerged from evaluation: Group 1 (n=7, 4.9%) did not exhibit any disorders; Group 2 (n=26, 18.2%) exhibited PD; Group 3 (n=34, 23.8%) exhibited CD; and Group 4 (n=76, 53.1%) exhibited both PD and CD on evaluation. Significant differences in global functioning scores were found between G1 and G2, G1 and G4, G2 and G4, and G3 and G4, with the highest C-GAS scores found in G1 and the lowest in G4. Conclusion: Rates of PD and CD are high in this maltreated population. The presence of PD has a major impact on C-GAS score, and the simultaneous presence of CD increases the already impaired function of PD. Demonstration of the additive effects of PD and CD on youth functioning suggests that professionals should be alert to the presence of both disorders to better act preventively and therapeutically in a high-risk population.
Abstract This study investigated the effects of the flavonoids 5-hydroxy-7,4′-dimethoxyflavone, casticin, and penduletin, isolated from Croton betulaster Müll Arg., Euphorbiaceae, a plant utilized in popular medicine in Brazil, on the growth and viability of the human glioblastoma cell line GL-15. We observed that 5-hydroxy-7,4′-dimethoxyflavone and casticin were not toxic to GL-15 cells after 24 h of exposure. However, casticin and penduletin inhibited the metabolic activity of glioblastoma cells significantly at a concentration of 10 µM (p ≤ 0.05). Flavonoids casticin and penduletin also induced a significant and dose-dependent growth inhibition beginning at 24 h of exposure, and the most potent flavonoid was penduletin. It was also observed that penduletin and casticin induced an enlargement of the cell body and a reduction of cellular processes, accompanied by changes in the pattern of expression of the cytoskeletal protein vimentin. Signs of apoptosis, such as the externalization of membrane phosphatidyl serine residues, nuclear condensation, and fragmentation, were also detected in cells treated with 50–100 µM flavonoids. Our results indicate that flavonoids extracted from C. betulaster present antitumoral activity to glioblastoma cells, with penduletin proving to be the most potent of the tested flavonoids. Our results also suggest that these molecules may be promising supplementary drugs for glioblastoma treatment.
Objectives: To describe the onset pattern, frequency, and severity of the signs and symptoms of the prodrome of the first hypomanic/manic episode and first depressive episode of bipolar disorder (BD) and to investigate the influence of a history of childhood maltreatment on the expression of prodromal symptoms. Methods: Using a semi-structured interview, the Bipolar Prodrome Symptom Scale-Retrospective (BPSS-R), information regarding prodromal symptoms was assessed from patients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of BD. History of childhood maltreatment was evaluated using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Results: Forty-three individuals with stable BD were included. On average, the prodrome of mania lasted 35.8±68.7 months and was predominantly subacute or insidious, with rare acute presentations. The prodrome of depression lasted 16.6±23.3 months and was also predominantly subacute or insidious, with few acute presentations. The prodromal symptoms most frequently reported prior to the first hypomanic or manic episode were mood lability, depressive mood, and impatience. A history of childhood abuse and neglect was reported by 81.4% of participants. Presence of childhood maltreatment was positively associated with prodromal symptoms, including social withdrawal, decreased functioning, and anhedonia. Conclusions: This study provides evidence of a long-lasting, symptomatic prodrome prior to first hypomanic/manic and depressive episode in BD and suggests that a history of childhood maltreatment influences the manifestations of this prodrome.
<p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were identified and quantified in samples of superficial sediments of the Negro River, in the Amazon region of Brazil, through analyses performed by GC/MS. Total PAH concentration that includes parent and alkylated PAHs ranged from 6.5 to 5348 ng g<sup>-1</sup> of dry weight. The ∑16 PAHs prioritized in environmental studies by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) ranged from 5.6 to 1187 ng g<sup>-1</sup>. The most contaminated places were those where muddy sediments were found, with the highest concentrations of organic matter, carbon and total nitrogen. The priority PAHs with high molecular weight represented 70% of the total abundance and showed that the main source of contamination of the sediments was pyrogenic. However, petrogenic PAHs coming from oil and derivatives input is also an important contamination source to be considered.</p>
The isolation of Cryptococcosis agents from environmental samples may be difficult due to the presence of groups of fast-growing fungi. We propose a new culture medium based on a modification of Dichloran Rose-Bengal Chloramphenicol Medium (DRBCm) to detect colonies of Cryptococcus neoformans. Our results indicate that DRBCm is superior to the classical Bird Seed Agar in its ability to detect colonies of C. neoformans.