Abstract The strong enhancement and localization of electromagnetic field in plasmonic systems have found applications in many areas, which include sensing and biosensing. In this paper, an overview will be provided of the use of plasmonic phenomena in sensors and biosensors with emphasis on two main topics. The first is related to possible ways to enhance the performance of sensors and biosensors based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR), where examples are given of functionalized magnetic nanoparticles, magnetoplasmonic effects and use of metamaterials for SPR sensing. The other topic is focused on surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) for sensing, for which uniform, flexible, and reproducible SERS substrates have been produced. With such recent developments, there is the prospect of improving sensitivity and lowering the limit of detection in order to overcome the limitations inherent in ultrasensitive detection of chemical and biological analytes, especially at single molecule levels.
Introduction The pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD) involves both genetic susceptibility and environmental factors, with focus on the mutation in thealpha-synucleingene (SNCA).Objective To analyse the polymorphism SNCA-A53T in patients with familial PD (FPD) and sporadic PD (SPD).Method A total of 294 individuals were studied, regardless of sex and with mixed ethnicity. The study group with 154 patients with PD, and the control group included 140 individuals without PD. The genotyping ofSNCA-A53T was performed by PCR/RFLP. Significance level was p < 0.05.Results Among all patients, 37 (24%) had FPD and 117 (75.9%) had SPD. The absence ofSNCA-A53T mutation was observed in all individuals.Conclusion SPD is notably observed in patients. However, the SNCA-A53T mutation was absent in all individuals, which does not differ controls from patients. This fact should be confirmed in a Brazilian study case with a more numerous and older population.
Introdução A patogênese da doença de Parkinson (DP) envolve fatores ambientais e suscetibilidade genética, destacando-se a mutação de alfa-sinucleína (SNCA.)Objetivos Analisar a variante genética SNCA-A53T em pacientes com DP familiar (DPF) e DP esporádica (DPE).Método Foram estudados 294 indivíduos, independente de sexo, com etnia miscigenada, sendo 154 com DP e 140 sem a doença (grupo controle). A genotipagem deSNCA-A53T foi realizada por PCR/RFLP. Nível de significância para p < 0,05.Resultados Entre os pacientes, 37(24%) tinham DPF e 117 (75,9%) DPE. A ausência da mutação SNCA-A53T em todos os indivíduos.Conclusão DPE é destacada entre os pacientes, no entanto a mutaçãoSNCA-A53T ausente em todos os indivíduos, não diferenciando os grupo controle e pacientes, o que deve ser confirmado em população brasileira, considerando uma ampla casuística, além da ancestralidade.
Integrins are transmembrane glycoprotein receptors that regulate cell-matrix interactions, thus functioning as sensors from the environment. They also act as cell adhesion molecules that are responsible for the maintenance of the normal epithelial phenotype. Some studies have reported a correlation between carcinogenesis and changes in integrin expression, especially β1 integrin, however its role in prostate cancer (PC) is unclear. The aim of our study was to evaluate the expression of β1 integrin in localized PC and to correlate the pattern of expression with recurrence after surgical treatment. Methods For this case-control study, we retrospectively selected surgical specimens from 111 patients with localized PC who underwent radical prostatectomy. Recurrence was defined as a PSA level exceeding 0.2ng/mL after surgery, and the median follow-up was 123 months. Integrin expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in a tissue microarray containing two samples from each tumor. We employed a semiquantitative analysis and considered a case as positive when the expression was strong and diffusely present. Results: There was a loss of 11 cases during the tissue micro array assembling. β1 expression was positive in 79 of the 100 evaluated cases (79%). The univariate and multivariate analyses showed that the negative expression of β1 integrin was associated with biochemical recurrence (p = 0.047) and time to recurrence after radical prostatectomy (p = 0.023). When β1 was negative, the odds ratio for recurrence was 2.78 times higher than that observed in the positive cases [OR = 2.78, p = 0.047, IC 95% (1.01-7.66)]. Conclusions: The loss of β1 integrin immune expression was correlated with biochemical recurrence in patients treated with radical prostatectomy for localized PC.
Type 1 diabetes incidence has been increasing worldwide, however the vast majority of patients do not have a good glycaemic control. This review focuses on diabetes educational programs designed for children, young adults and their families, as well as regular pump users educational tips, collected from papers published between 2000 and 2007. A comprehensive review of the literature has identified 40 articles describing the methods and the evaluation of diabetes self-management education interventions. Three research questions are posed. First: what are the recommendations and standards for diabetes self-management education from the different diabetes institutions/associations? Second: is there sufficient evidence to recommend any adaptation of any particular program? And third: Are the educational programs effective in lowering glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c)? The patient and his family should be instructed and trained to take appropriate decisions for diabetes management regarding their daily care. Diabetes self-management education improves glicaemic control (both in an individual basis as well as in groups) in such a way that the longer the education training in diabetes the better is the effect on glycaemic control is.
O número de portadores de diabetes melito tipo 1 (DM1) está aumentando globalmente, entretanto, a maior parte dos pacientes apresenta controle glicêmico insatisfatório. Esta revisão na literatura foi realizada com três questões de pesquisa: Quais as recomendações e diretrizes de educação em diabetes existentes? Existem evidências para recomendar a adaptação de determinado programa segundo a faixa etária dos pacientes? Os programas de educação são efetivos na melhora dos níveis de HbA1c? Foram revisados 40 artigos, publicados entre 2000 e 2007, sobre educação em DM1 em crianças, adolescentes, adultos e usuários de bomba de infusão contínua de insulina, além de incluir o resumo das diretrizes da IDF, da ADA, da SBD, da AADE, do IDC, e outras peculiaridades para o contexto de saúde pública e privada. O portador de diabetes e sua família devem ser treinados a fazer decisões efetivas de autocuidado em sua rotina diária. O aprimoramento do paciente no automanejo aproxima o valor da HbA1c ao adequado para sua faixa etária. A educação individual e a em grupo apresentam equivalência na melhora do controle metabólico. Existe uma correlação positiva entre o tempo de educação e o controle da glicemia.
OBJECTIVES: To measure hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection rates among injection drug users in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and to report their knowledge of and attitudes toward hepatitis and HBV vaccination. METHODS: 609 injection drug users recruited in Rio de Janeiro between 1999 and 2001 answered a questionnaire and were tested for hepatitis B and other blood-borne infections. Questions covered sociodemographic information, alcohol and illicit drug consumption, drug injection and sexual practices, medical history, and knowledge about HIV, AIDS and viral hepatitis. RESULTS: The prevalence of HBV infection was 27.1% , with 3.4% of the sample positive for HbsAg (active infection) and 0.8% positive for anti-HBs (indicating previous HBV vaccination). Most interviewees (81.3%) were aware of at least one form of viral hepatitis and received information from many different sources. In agreement with laboratory findings, 96.7% of the interviewees stated they had never been vaccinated against hepatitis B, but almost all unvaccinated interviewees (97.8%) said they would volunteer to be vaccinated if HBV vaccination were available. CONCLUSIONS: Few of the injection drug users surveyed had ever been vaccinated against HBV. Although most were aware of the risks posed by viral hepatitis, this awareness seldom translated into consistent behavioral change. The participants' willingness to be vaccinated against HBV suggests that the implementation of vaccination for this population may help decrease rates of hepatitis B infection.
OBJETIVOS: Calcular las tasas de infección por el virus de la hepatitis B (VHB) en usuarios de drogas inyectadas en Río de Janeiro, Brasil, y dar a conocer sus conocimientos y actitudes en torno a la hepatitis y a la vacunación contra el VHB. MÉTODOS: Seiscientos nueve usuarios de drogas que se reclutaron en Río de Janeiro entre 1999 y 2001 respondieron a un cuestionario y fueron sometidos a pruebas para detectar la presencia de hepatitis B y de otras infecciones transmitidas por la sangre. Las preguntas versaban sobre aspectos sociodemográficos, el consumo de alcohol y de drogas ilícitas, el modo de inyección de las drogas y las prácticas sexuales, los antecedentes médicos y los conocimientos sobre el VIH, el sida y la hepatitis viral. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de infección por el VHB fue de 27,1%; 3,4% de la muestra tuvo resultados positivos al HB Ag (infección activa) y 0,8% a anticuerpos anti-HBs (indicadores de que ya se ha recibido la vacuna contra el VHB). La mayor parte de las personas entrevistadas afirmaron no haber sido vacunadas contra la hepatitis B, pero casi todos las que no habían recibido la vacuna (97,8%) manifestaron estar dispuestas a vacunarse si se elaborase una vacuna. CONCLUSIONES: Pocos de los usuarios de drogas inyectadas habían sido vacunados contra el VHB. Aunque la mayor parte eran conscientes de los peligros que acarrea la hepatitis viral, ello raras veces se traducía en un cambio conductual invariable. La disposición de los participantes a vacunarse contra el VHB indica que si se implementase la vacunación en esta población se lograría reducir las tasas de hepatitis B.