The purpose of this work was to study four different solvent mixtures intended to increase the yield of the extraction stage of clavulanic acid (CA), which is one of the steps in the purification process. Four central composite rotatable designs (CCRD) were utilized to optimize the solvent mixtures. The variables selected for the factorial design were solvent mixture ratio (mL/mL) and temperature (ºC). The results showed that the yield of CA extracted from fermentation broth with the solvent mixtures of methyl-ethyl-ketone and ethyl acetate, and methyl-isobutyl-ketone and ethyl acetate (44.7 and 50.0%, respectively) was higher than that of the individual ethyl acetate alone (36.5%).
Two new marine metabolites, 3Z, 6Z, 9Z-dodecatrien-1-ol (1) from the ascidian Botrylloides giganteum and 4H-pyran-2ol acetate from the sponge Ircinia felix (4) are herein reported. The known bromotyrosine compounds, 2-(3,5-dibromo-4-methoxyphenyl)-N,N,N-dimethylethanammonium (2) and 2,6-dibromo-4-(2-(trimethylammonium)ethyl)phenol (3), have been isolated from the sponge Verongula gigantea. Serotonin (5) is reported for the first time from the sponge Cliona delitrix, and tambjamines A (15) and D (16) isolated as their respective salts from the nudibranch Tambja eliora. Only tambjamine D presented cytotoxicity against CEM (IC50 12.2 µg/mL) and HL60 (IC50 13.2 µg/mL) human leukemya cells, MCF-7 breast cancer cells (IC50 13.2 µg/mL), colon HCT-8 cancer cells (IC50 10.1 µg/mL) and murine melanoma B16 cancer cells (IC50 6.7 µg/mL).