A series of tetrakis-β-diketonate Q+[Ln(β-dik)4]–, where Ln = GdIII or EuIII, Q = ammonium cations and β-dik = tta (2-thenoyltrifluoracetone) or bmdm (1-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-3-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1,3-propanedione) have been synthesized and characterized. The environment surrounding the EuIII ion depends on the lateral groups of the ligand and on the alkyl chains of the counter ion Q. The shortest lifetime (τ) = 0.29 ms, and lowest quantum efficiencies (η) = 24%, were obtained for (N(C12H25)2(CH3)2)+[Eu(bmdm)4]–, while (N(C4H9)4)+[Eu(bmdm)4]– has the longest τ = 1.04 ms and η = 90%. The Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters (Ω2 and Ω4) strongly changes for tta series pointing to stronger ion-dipole interactions between the –CF3 group with the ammonium cations. The agreement between the experimental results of photoluminescence and theoretical data suggests that the geometries optimized by the Sparkle model are correct. These results point to potential candidates for building up Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) luminescent films, since it is possible to maximize the intermolecular interactions and the photoluminescent properties of tetrakis LnIII complexes.
We report on the synthesis of single-crystalline tellurium nanowires with different aspect-ratios prepared via facile surfactant-assisted synthesis under mild conditions. Short and long Te nanowires were synthesized by the reduction of tellurium dioxide by hypophosphorous acid with the assistance of polyoxyethylene (23) laurylether and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, respectively. We obtained uniform single-crystal Te nanowires with diameter below 30 nm and tunable length from 600 nm to 5 µm. Short and long Te nanowires showed remarkable nonlinear absorption and their third-order nonlinear optical properties were investigated by the Z-scan technique with single 80 ps laser pulses at 532 nm. For the first time, it was observed a distinguished switching behavior from saturated absorption to reverse saturated absorption as a function of the laser intensity in one-dimensional Te nanostructures. Although both short and long Te nanowires display such interesting behavior, the short ones exhibited superior optical limiting performance.
Abstract Third-stage larvae (L3) of Hysterothylacium sp. were collected by the first time in juveniles of pirarucu Arapaima gigas farmed in the Rio Preto da Eva, Amazonas state. Ninety-eight (98) out of 100 examined fish showed to be parasitized. Five hundred and ninety larvae of Hysterothylacium sp. were collected from the intestines, stomach and pyloric caeca. The mean intensity of parasite indexes was 6.02 (±5.75) ranging from 1 to 40 larvae per host and the mean abundance was 5.9 (±5.76). The A. gigas is the new host record for larvae of Hysterothylacium sp. in Brazil, and this is the first record of larvae of Hysterothylacium (Nematoda: Anisakidae) with zoonotic potential in the pirarucu from South America.
Resumo Larvas de terceiro estágio (L3) de Hysterothylacium sp. foram coletadas pela primeira vez em juvenis de pirarucu Arapaima gigas cultivados no Rio Preto da Eva, Estado do Amazonas. Noventa e oito (98) dos 100 peixes examinados estavam parasitados. Quinhentos e noventa larvas de Hysterothylaciumsp.foram coletados no intestino, estômago e cecos pilóricos. O índice parasitário de intensidade média foi de 6,02 (±5,75) variando de 1 a 40 larvas por hospedeiro e o de abundância média foi de 5,9 (±5,76). A. Gigas é um novo registro de hospedeiro para larvas de Hysterothylacium sp. no Brasil, também sendo, o primeiro registro de larvas de Hysterothylacium sp. com potencial zoonótico em pirarucu da América do Sul.
Abstract An updated inventory of Brazilian seed plants is presented and offers important insights into the country's biodiversity. This work started in 2010, with the publication of the Plants and Fungi Catalogue, and has been updated since by more than 430 specialists working online. Brazil is home to 32,086 native Angiosperms and 23 native Gymnosperms, showing an increase of 3% in its species richness in relation to 2010. The Amazon Rainforest is the richest Brazilian biome for Gymnosperms, while the Atlantic Rainforest is the richest one for Angiosperms. There was a considerable increment in the number of species and endemism rates for biomes, except for the Amazon that showed a decrease of 2.5% of recorded endemics. However, well over half of Brazillian seed plant species (57.4%) is endemic to this territory. The proportion of life-forms varies among different biomes: trees are more expressive in the Amazon and Atlantic Rainforest biomes while herbs predominate in the Pampa, and lianas are more expressive in the Amazon, Atlantic Rainforest, and Pantanal. This compilation serves not only to quantify Brazilian biodiversity, but also to highlight areas where there information is lacking and to provide a framework for the challenge faced in conserving Brazil's unique and diverse flora.
Resumo Um levantamento atualizado das plantas com sementes e análises relevantes acerca desta biodiversidade são apresentados. Este trabalho se iniciou em 2010 com a publicação do Catálogo de Plantas e Fungos e, desde então vem sendo atualizado por mais de 430 especialistas trabalhando online. O Brasil abriga atualmente 32.086 espécies nativas de Angiospermas e 23 espécies nativas de Gimnospermas e estes novos dados mostram um aumento de 3% da riqueza em relação a 2010. A Amazônia é o Domínio Fitogeográfico com o maior número de espécies de Gimnospermas, enquanto que a Floresta Atlântica possui a maior riqueza de Angiospermas. Houve um crescimento considerável no número de espécies e nas taxas de endemismo para a maioria dos Domínios (Caatinga, Cerrado, Floresta Atlântica, Pampa e Pantanal), com exceção da Amazônia que apresentou uma diminuição de 2,5% de endemicidade. Entretanto, a maior parte das plantas com sementes que ocorrem no Brasil (57,4%) é endêmica deste território. A proporção de formas de vida varia de acordo com os diferentes Domínios: árvores são mais expressivas na Amazônia e Floresta Atlântica do que nos outros biomas, ervas são dominantes no Pampa e as lianas apresentam riqueza expressiva na Amazônia, Floresta Atlântica e Pantanal. Este trabalho não só quantifica a biodiversidade brasileira, mas também indica as lacunas de conhecimento e o desafio a ser enfrentado para a conservação desta flora.
Calculations of the total dielectric functions and the optical bandgap energy (OBGE) of 4HSiC were performed by the full-potential linear muffin-tin-orbital method. The results are compared to spectroscopic ellipsometry dielectric measurements agreeing closely over in a wide range of energies. The obtained theoretical value of the (OBGE) agrees very closely with the measured ones obtained by transmission and photoacoustic spectroscopies at room temperature performed on 470 µm thick wafer and a 25 µm thick homoepitaxial layer of 4H-SiC samples grown (n-type, Siface) by hot wall CVD.