ABSTRACT Inulin is an effective prebiotic and its potential in modulating systemic immunity have been proposed. A subpopulation of T cells, named T regulatory cells (Tregs), expressing the Forkhead boxP3 transcription factor are key mediators of peripheral tolerance and suppress undesirable immune responses. These Tregs can be induced by cytokine transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) and interleukin 10 (IL-10). This work aimed to evaluate inulin effects on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in vitro. PBMC were incubated with inulin, and the expression of TGF-(1, FOXP3 and IL-10 was analyzed. Increased supernatant IL-10 levels were observed in PBMC of inulin-treated group (p=0.03). Moreover, FOXP3 gene expression was 7.6 fold higher in inulin-treated PBMC, whereas a trend in TGF-β1 expression was detected (p=0.055). These data suggest that inulin induces an immunosuppressive environment in cultured PBMC by promoting FOXP3 gene expression and IL-10 secretion. These studies offer prospects for further fundamental research in this field.
Hematological malignancies (HM) are a group of neoplastic diseases that arise from hematologic cell lineages. Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1) is shown to negatively regulate normal and malignant hematopoiesis and, in immunological context, to promote T cell exhaustion and generation of regulatory T cells, which are shown to be deleterious in cancer, by the induction of transcription factor FOXP3 expression. The present study aimed to evaluate TGFB1 exon-1 rs1800470 and FOXP3 intron-1 rs2232365 polymorphisms in relation to HM susceptibility. DNA was extracted from blood samples of 43 HM patients and 142 neoplasia-free individuals and polymorphisms were analyzed by allelic-specific PCR. Association analysis was assessed by the Odds Ratio (OR) with significance level of 5%. Regarding FOXP3 polymorphism, no significant differences were observed in genotype or allele distribution among the patients and controls. However, there was a positive association between TGFB1 TT genotype and HM susceptibility (OR = 4.07; CI95% = 1.94 - 8.52). In the combined analysis, a positive association was also observed for TGFB1 TT and FOXP3 GG genotypes (OR = 4.00; CI95% = 1.54 - 10.41) in relation to HM susceptibility. Our results indicated promising new markers to be further investigated in hematological malignancies.
A subgroup of tumor that has received attention is triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), which presents phenotype of negative estrogen receptor, negative progesterone receptor and has no overexpression of HER2. TP53 acts as a tumor suppressor limiting the proliferation of damaged cells. A polymorphic site (rs1042522) of TP53 encodes either an arginine or a proline amino acid, but its biological significance remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate this variant and its expression in search for a possible involvement in TNBC susceptibility and clinical outcome. Genetic polymorphism was evaluated in 50 patients and 115 controls by PCR based methodology and immunohistochemistry was done with monoclonal antibody. Case-control study showed no positive or negative association (OR= 0.95; CI95%= 0.48-1.89). Comparison of genotypes and clinical outcome showed no significant results. Despite most of patients presented p53 positive staining by immunohistochemistry, there was no significant association in relation to prognostic parameters. Results demonstrated a lack of association between codon 72 polymorphism, susceptibility and prognosis of TNBC. Immunohistochemistry analysis should be done more carefully, since most of the patients had the somatic mutation of p53, which could be an indicator of prognostic value in TNBC.
Torque Teno Virus (TTV) presence was investigated in peripheral blood of 117 brazilian women by nested polymerase chain reaction. TTV DNA was observed in 18.6% of healthy donors and in 24.32% Human Papillomavirus (HPV) patients. TTV presence was also investigated in the HPV positive group for comparison between the cervical cancer and noncancerous patients. TTV DNA prevalence was significantly higher among the HPV positive patients with cervical cancer (57.14%) than in HPV noncancerous patients (16.67%). Thus, the presence of TTV infection could be a risk factor for cancer development in the patients presenting HPV-TTV coinfection. Further studies are required to clarify the TTV influence in HPV pathogenesis.
Cleaner fishes remove ectoparasites, injured tissue, mucus and scales from the body surface of other fishes. This behavior is important for the maintenance and health of reef fish species. In the Brazilian coast there are 24 cleaner fish species, with Elacatinus figaro (a goby endemic to Brazil) being recognized as one of the most specialized. This study records the diversity of clients and the daily cleaning activity of Elacatinus figaro on coral reefs of Parrachos de Muriú, Rio Grande do Norte, Northeast Brazil. A total of 21 species belonging to 11 families were recorded, with 15 species of clients (68.4% of total) active during the day, five (25.3%) with nocturnal activity and one (5.3%) with diurnal and nocturnal activity. The most frequent clients recorded were grunts (Haemulidae; 25.6% of all cleaning events) and damselfishes (Pomacentridae; 22.8%), whereas planktivores/invertivores was the most frequently attended trophic category (23.6%). Cleaning activity started between 05h14-06h28 AM and ended between 5h13-5h25 PM. Size of clients ranged 7-40 cm (total length) and most individuals were medium-sized (12-30 cm). A total of 127 ± 3 cleaning events and 34 ± 1.7 minutes of cleaning activity were estimated per cleaning station per day (2-6 individuals of E. figaro).
Peixes limpadores removem ectoparasitas, tecido doente ou ferido, muco e escamas da superfície corporal de outros peixes, sendo portanto de fundamental importância para a manutenção do equilíbrio e da saúde dos peixes do ecossistema recifal. Na costa brasileira são registradas 24 espécies de peixes limpadores, das quais se destaca Elacatinus figaro, uma das espécies de limpadores mais especializada. Este estudo registrou a diversidade de clientes e o período de atividade de limpeza de Elacatinus figaro nos recifes de coral dos Parrachos de Muriú, Rio Grande do Norte. Foram registradas 21 espécies de clientes pertencentes a 11 famílias, das quais 15 espécies (68,4% do total de espécies) são ativas durante o dia, cinco (25,3%) têm atividade noturna e uma (5,3%) atividade diurna e noturna. Os clientes mais frequentes de E. figaro foram espécies de Haemulidae (25,6%) e Pomacentridae (22,8%) e a categoria trófica planctófago/invertívoro foi a mais representativa (23,6%). A atividade de limpeza teve início entre 05h14 e 06h28 e término entre 17h13 e 17h25. Os tamanhos dos clientes de E. figaro variaram de 7-40 cm com média de 12-30 cm de comprimento total. Um total de 127 ± 3 interações de limpeza e 34 ± 1,7 minutos utilizados na limpeza por estação por dia (2-6 indivíduos de E. figaro) foi registrado
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the sexual transmission of GBV-C/HGV, through RNA detection in cervicovaginal smears. Therefore the GBV-C/HGV RNA in cervicovaginal smears from apparently healthy women was investigated using routine proceedings for prophylactic screening to cervical cancer. GBV-C/HGV RNA was detected by reverse transcriptase and polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Only one woman presented co-infection with human papilloma virus (HPV). The GBV-C/HGV RNA was detected in 13/73 (17.57%) healthy women and it's prevalence in participating women between 28-43 years old was 53.85%. No association was found with GBV-C/HGV for the age of first sexual intercourse and number of pregnancies. In GBV-C/HGV RNA positive women, 69.23% were married. In conclusion, the present findings show that cervical and vaginal specimens could contain the GBV-C/HGV RNA.
O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a transmissão sexual de GBV-C/HBV, através da detecção do RNA viral em raspados cérvico-vaginais. Portanto, a presença do RNA GBV-C/HGV foi investigada em raspados cérvico-vaginais em mulheres aparentemente saudáveis que realizaram exames preventivos para câncer cervical. GBV-C/HGV RNA foi detectado por reação de transcriptase reversa e reação em cadeia da polimerase (RT-PCR). Apenas uma mulher apresentou a co-infecção com o papiloma vírus humano (HPV). O RNA GBV-C/HGV foi detectado em 13/73 (17,57%) mulheres saudáveis e sua prevalência entre participantes da idade de 28-43 anos foi de 53,85%. Não foi observada relação entre a presença do RNA GBV-C/HGV com a idade de primeira relação sexual, nem com o número de gestações. Entre as mulheres que apresentavam o RNA viral, 69,23% eram casadas. O presente estudo demonstrou que secreções cérvico-vaginais podem conter o RNA viral GBV-C/HBV.
TT virus (TTV) was first reported in Japan in 1997 by T. Nishizawa in sera from non-A to non-G post-transfusion hepatitis patients. It has been intensively investigated, ever since, as a possible addition to the list of hepatitis-inducing viruses. The TTV is an unenveloped, single-stranded DNA virus. Considerable genetic variability of TTV has been demonstrated and has led investigators to group its isolates into numerous genotypes and subtypes. However, the clinical significance of TTV infection remains unknown. It is frequently detected in the serum and in other body fluids of humans. The component of TTV currently best understood is its genome. Knowledge related to TTV has increased rapidly, but many fundamental aspects remain unclear. This review shows some of the molecular properties of TT virus.
O TT vírus (TTV) foi primeiramente descrito no Japão, em 1997, por T. Nishizawa, no soro de pacientes com hepatite, pós-transfusão, não-A-G. Tem sido intensivamente investigado, desde então, como uma possível adição à lista dos vírus indutores de hepatite. O TTV é um vírus DNA não-envelopado, de fita simples. Uma considerável variabilidade genética tem sido demonstrada por parte do TTV, o que tem levado pesquisadores a agrupar isolados do vírus em inúmeros genótipos e subtipos. No entanto a significância clínica da infecção por TTV permanece desconhecida. Ele é freqüentemente detectado em fluidos corporais e seu componente mais bem elucidado atualmente é o genoma. Conhecimentos relacionados ao TTV têm aumentado constantemente, porém vários aspectos fundamentais permanecem obscuros. Esta revisão apresenta algumas das propriedades moleculares do TT vírus.