ABSTRACT Soil beetles’ communities are responsible for many ecosystem services, and are very sensitive to environmental changes. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the abundance and diversity of the soil coleoptera fauna under uses and management and also to identify relationships of the beetle community with soil’s physical and chemical properties. The experiment had six experimental plots set up an Oxisol (Latossolo): corn (CO), soybean (SO), 7-year-old eucalyptus (EI), 4-year-old eucalyptus (EII), preserved Cerrado (PC), and disturbed Cerrado (DC). Soil beetles were sampled at 128 points for each experimental plot, where the soil physical and chemical properties were analyzed. The Coleoptera fauna organisms were identified at the family, subfamily, and gender level, and then, the number of individuals per day, richness, Shannon diversity indexes, and Pielou evenness were determined. The data were analyzed using multivariate techniques (hierarchical grouping and factor analysis). On total, 750 specimens of beetles were collected, distributed into 9 families, 14 subfamilies, and 27 genera. The most abundant family was Scarabaeidae (11 genera) with the highest occurrence in the PC (143 specimens) and DC (81 specimens). Cultivation with SO presented the greatest number of trap day individuals (ind trap-1 day-1 = 0.548); however, the highest diversity was found in the PC. (20 taxonomic groups) and CO (16 taxonomic groups). Shannon diversity was higher for the CO (H’ = 3.107), followed by the PC (H’ = 2.699), and the lowest value was found for the SO (H’ = 1.530). The similarity dendrogram grouped the plots into two extracts, demonstrating how the intensity of land use influences the abundance and diversity of beetle fauna. The factor analysis grouped the Coleoptera and the physical and chemical soil properties in two factors: elements related to the state of aggregation and porous system’s elements. The Coleoptera community was influenced by the intensity of land use and the portion with anthropized natural vegetation showed the highest richness, demonstrating that the Coleoptera fauna responds to environmental changes. Edaphic beetles in the different use and management systems were primarily related to soil physical properties, which explain the state of aggregation (pH, altitude, Ca2+, BD, clay, macroporosity, silt, K+, and microporosity) and the porous soil system (sand and total porosity).
ABSTRACT The objective with this study was to evaluate intake, feeding behavior, rumen fluid characteristics, performance, and nutrient digestibility of sheep fed banana pseudostem hay (BPH) with and without virginiamycin (VM). Thirty-two uncastrated male crossbred Dorper × Santa Inês lambs at approximately five months of age, with an average initial body weight of 25.00±1.95 kg, were used in the experiment. Four diets were tested, as follows: Tifton grass hay (TGH) plus concentrate with VM; BPH replacing 60% of TGH plus concentrate with VM; TGH plus concentrate without VM; and BPH replacing 60% of TGH plus concentrate without VM. The experiment was set up as a completely randomized design in a 2×2 factorial arrangement, in which the factors were represented by BPH and TGH with and without VM, organized in an orthogonal contrast. Banana pseudostem hay inclusion influenced nutrient intake, except for non-fibrous carbohydrates corrected for ash and protein. Neither idling nor water intake times were changed by VM inclusion or banana pseudostem hay addition. Rumen fluid pH did not differ among the contrasts (THV+BHV) vs. (TH+BH), THV vs. TH, and BHV vs. BH, which were used to evaluate VM influence. Banana pseudostem increased rumen fluid pH in the contrast THV vs. BHV, both treatments including VM. Mean temperature of rumen fluid was 34.07 °C, and it did not change by inclusions of VM or banana pseudostem hay. No difference was observed for crude protein digestibility in the evaluated contrasts. When associated with virginiamycin, banana pseudostem hay provides satisfactory performance and nutritional parameters for feedlot sheep. Virginiamycin does not change the performance or nutritional parameters of these animals when Tifton grass hay is used as the only roughage source.
ABSTRACT Forest-to-agriculture conversion and soil management practices for soybean cropping are frequently performed in the Cerrado (Brazilian tropical savanna). However, the effects of these practices on the soil microbial communities are still unknown. We evaluated and compared the fungal community structure in soil from soybean cropland with soil under native Cerrado vegetation at different times of the year in the Tocantins State. Soil samples were collected in two periods after planting (December) and in two periods during the soybean reproductive growth stage (February). Concomitantly, soil samples were collected from an area under native Cerrado vegetation surrounding the agricultural area. The soil DNA was analyzed using a fingerprinting method termed Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Space Analysis (ARISA) to assess the fungal community structure in the soil. Differences in the fungal community structure in the soil were found when comparing soybean cropland with the native vegetation (R = 0.932 for sampling 1 and R = 0.641 for sampling 2). Changes in the fungal community structure after management practices for soybean planting in Cerrado areas were related to changes in soil properties, mainly in copper, calcium, and iron contents, cation exchange capacity, base saturation, and calcium to magnesium ratio. These results show the changes in the fungal community structure in the soil as an effect of agricultural soil management in Cerrado vegetation in the state of Tocantins.
Abstract An updated synthesis of cyanobacteria and algae information is presented for Brazil aiming to refine the data gathered to date and evaluate the progress of the biodiversity knowledge about these organisms in the country since the publication of the Catálogo de Plantas e Fungos do Brasil. The results of 2015 showed an increase of 1,250 species (35.7%) when compared to 2010, reaching a total of 4,747 species. The most diverse classes in species number were the Bacillariophyceae, Conjugatophyceae, Florideophyceae, Cyanophyceae, Dinophyceae and Euglenophyceae. Bacillariophyceae and Cyanophyceae had the highest increase in species number in the five-year interval. The Southeast and South regions were the most diverse, however, the Northeast, with the states of Piauí and Sergipe, and the Central-west region, with Mato Grosso, Goiás and Distrito Federal, also stood out in the national algal biodiversity scenario. Despite the shortage of taxonomists and limited infrastructure, the results showed a significant improvement in the knowledge regarding the diversity of cyanobacteria and algae in the country during the study period, starting to even out regional geographical differences caused by subsampling.
Resumo Apresenta-se uma síntese atualizada de informações sobre algas no Brasil objetivando refinar os dados reunidos até o presente, bem como avaliar os avanços sobre o conhecimento da diversidade de algas no país desde a publicação do Catálogo de Plantas e Fungos do Brasil. Os resultados de 2015 mostraram um acréscimo de 1.250 espécies (35.7%) a um total de 4.747 em relação a 2010. As classes mais diversas em número de espécies foram Bacillariophyceae, Conjugatophyceae, Florideophyceae, Cyanophyceae, Dinophyceae e Euglenophyceae. Bacillariophyceae e Cyanophyceae tiveram o maior acréscimo de espécies no intervalo de cinco anos. A região Sudeste e Sul foram as mais diversas, porém, as regiões Nordeste com os estados do Piauí e Sergipe e Centro-Oeste com os estados de Mato Grosso, Goiás e Distrito Federal destacaram-se no cenário da biodiversidade nacional. Apesar da escassez de taxonomistas e da infraestrutura limitada, os resultados obtidos evidenciaram um avanço significativo no conhecimento da diversidade de algas no país nesse período de cinco anos, iniciando uma mudança quanto as diferenças geográficas regionais.
The prevalence of food insecurity is important for the assessment of the conditions of life and planning of public policies for combating hunger. The survey was conducted with 177 families of São José dos Ramos, in the year 2005, through interview. Data analysis, through logistics regression and ODDS RATIO, used as the dependent variable is in food safety assessment resulting from the application of EBIA, and as a variable dichotomic-independent consumption of 15 sets of food. The regression model Logistics and the odds ration of Association showed whole milk; butter, biscuit, cracker, cake with food safety. However you should take into consideration the expanded concept food and nutritional security that emphasizes other relevant factors beyond the food consumption as food availability, which incorporates income conditions and standard of living.
A prevalência de insegurança alimentar é importante para a avaliação das condições de vida e para o planejamento de políticas públicas de combate à fome. A pesquisa foi realizada com 177 famílias de São José dos Ramos-PB, no ano de 2005, por meio de entrevista. A análise dos dados, por regressão logística e ODDS RATIO, utilizou como variável dependente estar ou não em segurança alimentar, avaliação resultante da aplicação da EBIA; e, como variável independente dicotômica, o consumo de 15 conjuntos de alimentos. O modelo em regressão logística e o odds ratio mostraram associação de leite integral, manteiga, biscoito, bolacha e bolo com a segurança alimentar. Contudo, deve-se levar em consideração o conceito ampliado de Segurança Alimentar e Nutricional, que enfatiza outros fatores relevantes além do consumo alimentar, como a disponibilidade de alimento, que se incorpora às condições de renda e padrão de vida.
Kinosternon scorpioides (Linnaeus, 1766), with its common name of jurará, is a quite variable species of turtles, and many different names have been applied to populations throughout its range. Currently, however, four subspecies are considered valid as K. scorpioides arises from southern Panama over most of northern South America and is found in Ecuador, northern Peru, southern Bolivia, northern Argentina, eastern Guyana and Brazil. Thus, an ultrasonographic and radiographic study was performed in order to describe the morphology and development of eggs of 20 female jurará mud turtles K. scorpioides, from September 2005 to August 2006. In the first month, the ovarian cycle was characterized by absence of vitellogenic follicles, atresic follicles or oviduct eggs. From October 2005 to March 2006 on, ultrasonographic scanning allowed to establish the growing vitellogenic follicles. Vitellogenic follicles were observed with spherical to ovoid shapes, with a surrounding echogenic yolk, a nonechogenic albumin layer, and a high echogenic shell. The oviduct eggs were identified by radiography just 180 days after beginning the experiment, when the shell became enough mineralized to impress the radiographic film. This experiment allowed to obtain by means of the 7.5 MHz linear probe images with adequate resolution and penetration for visualization of follicles. Successive ultrasonographic examinations of 20 K. scorpioides females allowed to access initial stages of vitellogenic follicles and oviduct eggs, and radiographic examination revealed to be an easy technique to assess oviduct eggs and to allow evaluation of egg development in jurarás, from 6 months on.
A tartaruga Kinosternon scorpioides (Linnaeus, 1766), com nome popular de jurará, é uma espécie bastante variável, e muitos nomes diferentes são atribuídos às suas populações, de acordo com sua localização geográfica. Atualmente, quatro subespécies foram validadas como K. scorpioides surgindo desde o extremo Sul do Panamá e norte da América do Sul, podendo ser encontradas ainda no Equador, no norte do Peru, sul da Bolívia, norte da Argentina, leste da Guiana e no Brasil. Desde modo, foi realizado um estudo ultrassonográfico e radiológico, a fim de descrever a morfologia e o desenvolvimento dos ovos de K. scorpioides em cativeiro, utilizando-se 20 fêmeas, no período de setembro de 2005 a agosto de 2006. No primeiro mês, o ciclo ovariano foi caracterizado pela ausência de folículos vitelogênicos, atrésicos ou presença de ovos em ovidutos. De outubro de 2005 a março de 2006 a varredura ultrassonográfica permitiu determinar o crescimento vitelogênico dos folículos, os quais foram observados com um formato que variou de ovóide a esférico, envolvidos por um conteúdo ecogênico, uma camada não-ecogência de albumina e uma casca de elevada ecogenicidade. Ovos presentes em ovidutos foram identificados por radiografias apenas 180 dias após início do experimento, quando a casca tornou-se suficientemente mineralizada para impressionar o filme radiográfico. Um transdutor linear de 7,5 MHz promoveu imagens com resolução e penetração adequada para visibilização de folículos. Exames ultrassonográficos sucessivos em fêmeas K. scorpioides permitiram determinar os estágios iniciais de desenvolvimento de folículos vitelogênicos e o exame radiográfico mostrou-se como técnica simples para avaliar a presença de ovos em ovidutos, permitindo fazer inferências sobre desenvolvimento de ovos em jurarás, a partir dos 6 meses de pós-observação por ultrassonografia.