Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of smoking on gingival inflammation in a representative sample of 1,650 adults from Santiago (Chile), Porto Alegre (Brazil), and Tucumán (Argentina). A questionnaire was administered to participants to gather demographic and behavioral characteristics, including smoking habits. The participants were clinically examined to obtain gingival index (GI), gingival bleeding index (GBI), visible plaque index (VPI), and calculus presence values. Gingival inflammation was defined as a mean GI > 0.5. Heavy smokers presented significantly lower levels of gingival inflammation, as reflected by both GI and GBI, than both light and moderate smokers, despite their having increased amounts of plaque and calculus. Being 50 years old or older [odds ratio (OR), 1.93], a VPI ≥ 30% (OR, 28.1), and self-reported diabetes (OR, 2.79) were positively associated with detection of gingival inflammation. In conclusion, the occurrence of clinically detectable gingival inflammation was lower in heavy smokers than light and moderate smokers. Older age, diabetes, and visible plaque emerged as risk indicators of gingivitis. Plaque and gingival indices are significantly associated regardless of the smoking status.
Abstract Most of the literature evaluating dental implants focuses on implant survival, which is a limited proxy for the successful rehabilitation of patients with missing teeth. Success should include not only survival but also lack of mechanical, biological, and esthetics problems. A comprehensive review of local and systemic risk factors prior to implant placement will allow the tailoring of treatment planning and maintenance protocols to the patient’s profile in order to achieve longitudinal success of the therapy. This review discusses the role of controlling different risk factors and prevention/treatment of peri-implant mucositis in order to avoid peri-implantitis. Although the literature addressing the topic is still scarce, the existing evidence shows that performing optimal plaque control and regular visits to the dentist seem to be adequate to prevent peri-implant lesions. Due to impossibility of defining a probing depth associate with peri-implant health, radiographic evaluations may be considered in the daily practice. So far, there is a strong evidence linking a past history of periodontal disease to peri-implant lesions, but this is not so evident for other factors including smoking and diabetes. The prevention of biological complications starts even before implant placement and include a broader analysis of the patient risk profile and tailoring the rehabilitation and maintenance protocols accordingly. It should be highlighted that the installation of implants does not modify the patient profile, since it does not modify genetics, microbiology or behavioral habits of any individual.
Abstract The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between metabolic syndrome (MS) and periodontitis (PD), through a systematic review and meta-analysis. Original observational studies assessing the association between MS and PD in adults, published before May 11th (2017), were identified through electronic searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Library databases. The PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guideline was used. For studies to be included, they had to mention the criteria used to diagnose MS and to have used at least one clinical measure to diagnose PD. There was no language restriction. Three reviewers independently identified eligible studies for possible inclusion in the systematic review and meta-analysis. The quality of the studies was evaluated by the Newcastle-Ottawa scale for observational studies. A random model meta-analysis was conducted. The strategies used to investigate heterogeneity were sequential analysis, subgroup analysis, univariate meta-regression and sensitivity analysis. Thirty-three studies met the inclusion criteria for the systematic review, and 26 had enough information to be included in the meta-analysis, totaling 52,504 patients. MS and PD were associated with an odds ratio of 1.38 (95%CI 1.26–1.51; I2 = 92.7%; p < 0.001). Subgroup analysis showed that complete periodontal examination (I2 = 70.6%; p < 0.001) partially explained the variability between studies. The present findings suggest an association between MS and PD. Individuals with MS are 38% more likely to present PD than individuals without this condition. Prospective studies should be conducted to establish cause and effect relations between MS and PD.
Abstract The aims of this study were to describe the self-reported oral hygiene habits, dental visit frequency, and gingival bleeding perception in adult populations from three South American cities, and also to assess the association of these variables with sociodemographic data and with the clinical presence of plaque and gingival inflammation. Five-hundred and fifty adult subjects from each city (Porto Alegre, Brazil; Tucumán, Argentina; Santiago, Chile) received full mouth examinations to determine visible plaque and gingival index. A structured questionnaire on demographics, habits, attitudes and knowledge of oral health was also administered. The data were analyzed according to dental visit frequency, toothbrushing frequency, interproximal tooth cleaning frequency, subjects’ perception of gum bleeding, and proportion of subject sites with VP and bleeding sites. Analysis of the association among the variables was performed using either a chi-square test or Fischer's exact test. Toothbrushing twice a day or more was reported by 84.2% of the subjects, but only 17.7% reported daily interdental cleaning, and 60.2% reported visiting a dental clinic only in an emergency. Only 2.97% had no bleeding sites, whereas 33.7% had 50% or more bleeding sites. Regular interdental self-cleaning and a dental visit every 3-6 months was associated with less plaque and less gingival bleeding. More than 12 years of education was associated with healthier habits, less bleeding and plaque scores. In conclusion, the oral health behavior of South American adult subjects from these cities is below the international recommendations, especially in relation to interdental cleaning and regular dental visits.
Abstract: The aim of the present study was to compare negative impacts of oral conditions in Oral Heath Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) assessed by the Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14) scores in pregnant women receiving or not comprehensive periodontal treatment. This randomized controlled clinical trial included pregnant women aged between 18 and 35 years old. Participants were randomized in a test group with 96 and a control group with 114 women. Patients in the test group received comprehensive periodontal treatment, supra and subgingival scaling and root-planning and periodontal maintenance appointments. The OHIP-14 was applied before and after treatment. The primary outcome was changes in OHIP-14 scores after follow-up period. The impact of having received or not comprehensive periodontal treatment on the change of the OHIP-14 scores was also investigated. Both groups showed significant reduction in OHIP-14 scores and effect size for the test group was 0.60 and 0.36 for the control group. Multinomial logistic regression analysis showed that participants of the control group had 5.9-fold odds (CI 95% 1.88-18.52) of worsening in OHIP-14 scores and their perception of oral conditions in relation to test group. Comprehensive periodontal treatment during pregnancy can reduce the negative impacts in OHRQoL.
Abstract The aim of the present study was to evaluate the incidence and causes of tooth loss in periodontal subjects from a private practice in Brazil. Two trained examiners extracted data from the records of subjects who sought periodontal treatment from 1980 to 2013. Only records of patients who completed the non-surgical periodontal treatment and had at least one visit for maintenance were included. Data were analyzed by chi-square test, Student’s t-test, Kaplan-Meier survival curve and Cox regression. A total of 3,319 records were reviewed and 737 records included (58.6% women, mean age of 46.6±13.0 years at the beginning of the treatment). Maintenance period ranged from 1 to 33 years (7.4±6 years). During this period, 202 individuals (27.4%) lost 360 teeth, 47.5% of losses within the first five years (n=171). Non-compliers lost more teeth than compliers (p<0.001), respectively 211 and 149 teeth. Regarding reasons of tooth loss, 84 individuals lost 38% of the teeth from periodontal disease progression (n=137). Survival analysis showed that most patients lost only one tooth from periodontal disease, and differences in the survival rates between compliers and non-compliers were observed following the second tooth loss. Approximately one-third of tooth losses was related to periodontal disease progression, and there was stability in time of the proportion of losses from disease progression and other reasons. Therefore, it is possible to conclude that compliant patients in a private practice lose fewer teeth than do non-compliers. Among compliers, periodontal disease progression was not the main cause of tooth loss.
Resumo O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a incidência e causas de perda dentária em pacientes em manutenção periódica preventiva (MPP) de uma clínica privada. Dois examinadores extraíram os dados de registros de pacientes que procuraram tratamento periodontal entre 1980 a 2013. Os registros de pacientes que completaram o tratamento periodontal não cirúrgico e tiveram ao menos uma visita de MPP foram incluídos. Os dados foram avaliados utilizando os testes chi-quadrado, T de Student, curva de sobrevida de Kaplan-Meier e regressão de Cox. Dos 3.319 prontuários, 737 foram incluídos (58,6% mulheres, 46,6±13,0 anos). O período de MPP variou de 1 a 33 anos (7,4±6 anos). Durante este período, 202 indivíduos (27,4%) perderam 360 dentes, 47,5% das perdas durante os primeiros 5 anos de manutenção (n=171). Indivíduos irregulares nas consultas de MPP perderam mais dentes (p<0.001) do que indivíduos com regularidade, 211 e 149 dentes respectivamente. Oitenta e quatro indivíduos perderam 38% de dentes por progressão de doença periodontal (n=137). A maioria dos indivíduos perdeu 1 dente por doença periodontal, e foram observadas diferenças na sobrevida a partir da segunda perda dentária quando comparados indivíduos regulares e irregulares na MPP. Aproximadamente um terço dos dentes perdidos estava relacionado à progressão de doença periodontal. Foi observada uma estabilidade na proporção de perdas por progressão de doença e outras razões ao longo do tempo. Desta forma, conclui-se que indivíduos com uma frequência regular de MPP perdem menos dentes e a progressão de doença nesses indivíduos não é a principal razão para perda dentária.
Abstract In recent years, different chlorhexidine formulations have been tested, including an alcohol-free alternative, but the effect of this solution on early biofilm formation is not clear. A crossover, randomized, double-blind clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of two chlorhexidine solutions against supra- and subgingival biofilm formation (NCT#02656251). Thirty-five participants were randomized and asked to rinse twice daily with 15 ml of an alcohol-containing 0.12% chlorhexidine solution, an alcohol-free 0.12% chlorhexidine solution, or placebo. The study was conducted in three experimental periods of 4 days each, with a 10-day washout between the periods. All the experimental periods followed the same protocol, except that the solutions were switched. Biofilm distribution was evaluated every 24 hours by the Plaque-Free Zone Index, during 96 hours. Adverse events were self-reported and sensory evaluation was performed using a hedonic scale. Compared to the placebo, the chlorhexidine solutions resulted in a significantly higher number of surfaces free of plaque over 96 hours (p < 0.01), and were able to prevent subgingival biofilm formation (p < 0.01). The alcohol-free chlorhexidine solution was associated with a lower incidence of adverse events, compared with alcohol-containing chlorhexidine (p < 0.05); it also received better sensory evaluation and acceptance by trial participants, compared with the alcohol-containing chlorhexidine (p = 0.007), and had a similar inhibitory effect on the formation of supra- and subgingival biofilms.
Abstract This study aimed to investigate the differences in the subgingival microbiological outcomes between periodontal patients submitted to a supragingival control (SPG) regimen as compared to subgingival scaling and root planing performed combined with supragingival debridement (SPG + SBG) intervention during the periodontal maintenance period (PMP). A systematic literature search using electronic databases (MEDLINE and EMBASE) was conducted looking for articles published up to August 2016 and independent of language. Two independent reviewers performed the study selection, quality assessment and data collection. Only human randomized or non-randomized clinical trials with at least 6-months-follow-up after periodontal treatment and presenting subgingival microbiological outcomes related to SPG and/or SPG+SBG therapies were included. Search strategy found 2,250 titles. Among these, 148 (after title analysis) and 39 (after abstract analysis) papers were considered to be relevant. Finally, 19 studies were selected after full-text analysis. No article had a direct comparison between the therapies. Five SPG and 14 SPG+SBG studies presented experimental groups with these respective regimens and were descriptively analyzed while most of the results were only presented graphically. The results showed that both SPG and SPG+SBG protocols of PMP determined stability in the microbiological results along time. Nevertheless, new studies comparing these interventions in PMP are needed, especially if the limitations herein discussed could be better controlled.
Abstract Little is known about the factors that may be used in clinical practice to predict the therapeutic response of aggressive periodontitis patients. The aim of this study was to determine predictors of clinical outcomes after non-surgical treatment of aggressive periodontitis. A total of 24 patients (aged 13-26 years) received oral hygiene instructions, as well as subgingival scaling and root planing. Twelve subjects received systemic azithromycin at random. Clinical variables were assessed at baseline, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Baseline microbiological assessment was performed by checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization. Multivariable models used generalized estimating equations. There were significant improvements in the entire sample in regard to pocket depth, clinical attachment level and bleeding on probing. Significant predictors of a reduction in mean pocket depth were: use of azithromycin, non-molar teeth, generalized disease and baseline pocket depth. Absence of plaque predicted a 0.22 mm higher attachment gain, whereas a baseline pocket depth ≥7 mm predicted a 1.36 mm higher attachment loss. Azithromycin, plaque, and baseline pocket depth were significant predictors of bleeding on probing. The concomitant presence of all three red complex species predicted a 0.78 mm higher attachment loss. It may be concluded that dental plaque, tooth type, disease extent, baseline pocket depth, and use of azithromycin were significant predictors of the clinical response to treatment for aggressive periodontitis in young individuals. Moreover, the presence of multiple periodontal pathogens may predict challenges in achieving a favorable outcome for aggressive periodontitis.
Few population-based cohort studies have been established in Dentistry and this is especially true for Latin America. We conducted a population-based prospective study focusing on oral health in Porto Alegre, south Brazil, and herein we describe its methodology and discuss directions for further research. The cohort was established in 2001 using a multistage probability sample of 1,465 toothed and 121 edentulous subjects. A 5-year follow-up was performed in 2006 that included 755 individuals. The main aim of this study was to determine the pattern and risk factors for periodontal disease progression and tooth loss incidence. A full-mouth protocol was used including periodontal assessments at six sites per tooth. Primary outcomes were periodontal attachment loss and tooth loss. Oral mucosal lesions, dental plaque, gingivitis, supragingival calculus, probing depths, gingival recession, and dental caries were also assessed. This is the first population-based cohort study to focus on periodontal disease in Latin America. Findings will contribute to our understanding of the epidemiology of periodontal disease and provide valuable data for the planning and implementation of preventive and therapeutic strategies.
Poucos estudos de coorte de base populacional têm sido estabelecidos em Odontologia e isso é especialmente verdade para a América Latina. Nós conduzimos um estudo prospectivo de base populacional focando em saúde bucal em Porto Alegre, sul do Brasil, e aqui descrevemos a metodologia do estudo e discutimos direções futuras da pesquisa. A coorte foi estabelecida em 2001 utilizando uma amostra probabilística múltiplo-estágio de 1.465 dentados e 121 desdentados. Um acompanhamento de 5 anos foi realizado em 2006 e incluiu 755 indivíduos. Os objetivos principais do estudo foram determinar o padrão e os fatores de risco para progressão de doença periodontal e incidência de perda dentária. Um protocolo de exame de boca completa foi utilizado, incluindo registros periodontais em 6 sítios por dente. Os desfechos primários foram perda de inserção periodontal e perda dentária. Lesões de mucosa bucal, placa visível, gengivite, cálculo supragengival, profundidade de sondagem, recessão gengival e cárie dentária também foram acessados. Este é o primeiro estudo de coorte de base populacional a focar em doença periodontal na América Latina. Os achados deste estudo contribuirão para o entendimento da epidemiologia da doença periodontal e fornecerão dados valiosos para planejamento e implementação de estratégias preventivas e terapêuticas.
<p>Poucos estudos de coorte de base populacional têm sido estabelecidos em Odontologia e isso é especialmente verdade para a América Latina. Nós conduzimos um estudo prospectivo de base populacional focando em saúde bucal em Porto Alegre, sul do Brasil, e aqui descrevemos a metodologia do estudo e discutimos direções futuras da pesquisa. A coorte foi estabelecida em 2001 utilizando uma amostra probabilística múltiplo-estágio de 1.465 dentados e 121 desdentados. Um acompanhamento de 5 anos foi realizado em 2006 e incluiu 755 indivíduos. Os objetivos principais do estudo foram determinar o padrão e os fatores de risco para progressão de doença periodontal e incidência de perda dentária. Um protocolo de exame de boca completa foi utilizado, incluindo registros periodontais em 6 sítios por dente. Os desfechos primários foram perda de inserção periodontal e perda dentária. Lesões de mucosa bucal, placa visível, gengivite, cálculo supragengival, profundidade de sondagem, recessão gengival e cárie dentária também foram acessados. Este é o primeiro estudo de coorte de base populacional a focar em doença periodontal na América Latina. Os achados deste estudo contribuirão para o entendimento da epidemiologia da doença periodontal e fornecerão dados valiosos para planejamento e implementação de estratégias preventivas e terapêuticas.</p>
<p>Few population-based cohort studies have been established in Dentistry and this is especially true for Latin America. We conducted a population-based prospective study focusing on oral health in Porto Alegre, south Brazil, and herein we describe its methodology and discuss directions for further research. The cohort was established in 2001 using a multistage probability sample of 1,465 toothed and 121 edentulous subjects. A 5-year follow-up was performed in 2006 that included 755 individuals. The main aim of this study was to determine the pattern and risk factors for periodontal disease progression and tooth loss incidence. A full-mouth protocol was used including periodontal assessments at six sites per tooth. Primary outcomes were periodontal attachment loss and tooth loss. Oral mucosal lesions, dental plaque, gingivitis, supragingival calculus, probing depths, gingival recession, and dental caries were also assessed. This is the first population-based cohort study to focus on periodontal disease in Latin America. Findings will contribute to our understanding of the epidemiology of periodontal disease and provide valuable data for the planning and implementation of preventive and therapeutic strategies.</p>
This investigation compared gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) interleukin-1β (IL-1β) concentrations in periodontitis patients subjected to a strict supragingival biofilm control (Supra) for 6 months. Never-smokers (23) and smokers (n = 20; 19.6 ± 11.8 cigarettes/day) moderate-to-severe chronic periodontitis patients underwent a 6 months period of supragingival control with weekly recall visits. Periodontal probing depth (PPD), bleeding on probing (BOP) and GCF samples (from different PPD category sites: 3-5 mm and 6–10 mm) were obtained at the baseline, 30, and 180 days. IL-1β was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Generalized estimating equations were used to fit prediction models of IL-1β changes, considering the dependence between the examinations, and using only data from experimental sites. Overall IL-1β concentrations decreased from 3.2 pg/µL to 1.9 pg/µL. Higher baseline IL-1β concentrations were associated with higher baseline PPD values in both groups. There were no differences in IL-1β concentrations between never-smokers and smokers over time for any PPD category. Higher baseline PPD values and the presence of BOP on day 180 were significantly associated with higher IL-1β concentrations. A strict Supra regimen reduced IL-1β concentrations over time in periodontitis patients. The benefits observed for smokers underline the importance of oral hygiene measures, even considering the presence of this important risk factor.
The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of rinses with slurries of a dentifrice containing triclosan (TCS), as compared with rinses with slurries from a control dentifrice, in controlling early subgingival biofilm formation. A double-blind, randomized and cross-over clinical trial was designed, and 26 dental students were included. In the first period, participants were randomized to rinse with a TCS slurry or a control slurry, in a 12 h interval, and to refrain from mechanical cleaning. A Plaque Free Zone Index was assessed at 24 h, 48 h, 72 h and 96 h. After a washout period of 10 days, the second experimental period was conducted, following the same protocol as the first period, except that the slurry groups were switched. Use of the TCS slurry resulted in a significantly higher percentage of plaque-free surfaces, both at 24 h and at 72 h (p < 0.01). In the of 48-72 h interval, the triclosan slurry showed a lower percentage of sites converted to a score of 2 (38.1% for the testversus 40% for the control product, p = 0.015). In conclusion, rinsing with slurries of dentifrice containing TCS retards the down growth of bacterial biofilms from the supra- to the subgingival environment.
Properly performed daily mechanical biofilm control is the most important prevention strategy for periodontal diseases. However, proper mechanical biofilm control is not performed effectively by the majority of the population, mainly due to lack of motivation and of manual dexterity. Local biofilm retention factors may aggravate home oral hygiene quality. For this reason, patients wearing fixed orthodontic appliances comprise a group that may benefit from the daily use of mouthwashes. The purpose of this review was to perform a systematic search in the literature on antiseptics used to control supragingival biofilm and gingivitis in orthodontic patients. Six studies investigating the effect of chlorhexidine and 5 studies evaluating the effect of the daily use of antiseptics were found. Chlorhexidine showed better results in reducing plaque and gingivitis. However, because of its adverse effects after continuous use, it should not be indicated for long-term periods. Among the agents considered for daily use, the fixed combination of essential oils was the only one evaluated in a clinical trial, in which a comparative group presented a statistically significant clinical impact. There is no direct evidence supporting the indication of antiseptic agents for orthodontic patients other than chlorhexidine and essential oils. It can be concluded that, for patients undergoing orthodontic treatment, chlorhexidine should be considered for treating acute gingival inflammation, whereas essential oils should be indicated for long-term daily use in controlling supragingival biofilm.
The posterior position in the arches is one of the factors that underlies the poor prognosis of molar teeth (M). It is speculated that M do not benefit from the oral hygiene routine as well as non-molars (NM) do. This study evaluated the response of M and NM to supragingival control during a 6-month period in 25 smokers (S) and 25 never-smokers (NS) with moderate-to-severe periodontitis. One calibrated examiner assessed visible plaque (VPI) and gingival bleeding (GBI) indexes, periodontal probing depth (PPD), bleeding on probing (BOP), and clinical attachment loss (CAL) at days 0 (baseline), 30 and 180. At baseline, M showed significantly higher mean values of VPI (p = 0.017) and PPD (p < 0.001) compared with NM; CAL was also greater in M (p < 0.001) and was affected by smoking (p = 0.007). The reductions obtained for periodontal indicators at day 180 showed similar responses between M and NM. For CAL, M (NS 0.57 ± 0.50; S 0.67 ± 0.64) and NM (NS 0.38 ± 0.23; S 0.50 ± 0.33) reached an almost significant difference (p = 0.05). Smoking did not influence the response to treatment. Multilevel analysis revealed that, only for PDD reductions, the interaction between sites, teeth and patient was significant (p < 0.001). It was concluded that M benefit from an adequate regimen of supragingival biofilm control; therefore, supragingival condition should be considered in the prognosis of molar teeth.