Abstract This study aimed to assess the effects of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) on alveolar bone loss (ABL), blood count, and counting of megakaryocytes and adipocytes in male Wistar rats. Forty male 60-day Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: Control (C), Periodontal Disease (PD), Heparin (Hp) and Heparin + Periodontal Disease (Hp+PD). LMWH was applied for 60 days at doses of 1 ml/kg/day. Blood samples were collected at baseline, 30 and 60. On day-49, PD and Hp+PD groups were subjected to ligature-induced periodontitis around second upper right molar. The left side was assessed as spontaneous alveolar bone loss. Mean ABL in the side with ligature showed significantly different between C (0.35±0.07 mm) and Hp+DP (0.49±0.09 mm) groups (p<0.001), between PD (0.55±0.11 mm) and Hp (0.32±0.06 mm) groups (p<0.001) and between Hp and Hp+DP groups (p<0.001). No significant differences were found among groups for ABL in the side without ligature. Animal weight, food intake, and water consumption showed no statistically significant difference among groups. Megakaryocytes and adipocytes were counted using optical microscopy and no statistically significant differences were found. Within-groups, there were an increase and a decrease, respectively, in the counting of lymphocytes (p=0.005 for C and p=0.009 for Hp+PD groups only) and leukocytes (p=0.003 for C, p=0.001 for PD, p=0.002 for Hp, and p<0.001 for Hp+PD groups). There was no decrease in the number of platelets in the three collection periods. LMWH was not able to affect ABL, but it may change the blood counting, especially increasing lymphocytes.
Resumo O presente estudo objetivou verificar o efeito da heparina de baixo peso molecular (HBPM) sob a perda óssea alveolar (POA), contagem de células sanguíneas, megacariócitos e adipócitos em ratos Wistar machos. Quarenta ratos Wistar de 60 dias foram randomicamente divididos em quatro grupo: Controle (C), Doença Periodontal (DP), Heparina (Hp) e Heparina + Doença Periodontal (Hp+DP). HBPM foi aplicada durante 60 dias em doses de 1 mL/kg/dia. Coletas sanguíneas foram realizadas nos dias 0, 30 e 60. No dia 49, os grupos DP e Hp+DP receberam indução de doença periodontal por ligadura ao redor do segundo molar superior direito. No lado esquerdo, verificou-se perda óssea alveolar espontânea. A média de POA no lado com ligadura mostrou-se estatisticamente diferente entre os grupos C (0,35±0,07 mm) e Hp+PD (0,49±0,09 mm) (p<0,001), entre os grupos DP (0,55±0,11 mm) e Hp (0,32±0,06 mm) (p<0,001) e entre os grupos Hp e Hp+DP (p<0,001). Nenhuma diferente significativa foi observada entre os grupos no lado sem ligadura. Peso dos animais, consumo de ração e ingestão de água não mostraram diferenças significativas entre os grupos. Megacariócitos e adipócitos foram contados por microscopia óptica e nenhuma diferença significativa foi encontrada. Dentro dos grupos, houve um aumento e uma diminuição, respectivamente, na contagem de linfócitos (p=0,005 no grupo C e p=0,009 no grupo Hp+DP somente) e leucócitos (p=0,003 no grupo C, p=0.001 no grupo DP e p=0,002 no grupo Hp e Hp+DP). Não houve diminuição no número de plaquetas nos três períodos de coleta. HBPM não foi capaz de modificar a POA, porém modificou a contagem de células sanguíneas, especialmente aumentando o número de linfócitos.
Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the anti-plaque and anti-gingivitis effects of two mouthwashes containing cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), in comparison to negative control mouthwash. One hundred and twenty subjects were randomly assigned to study groups: test (0.075% CPC and 0.28% zinc lactate), positive control (0.07% CPC) and negative control mouthwash without CPC. All volunteers were examined by a calibrated examiner for the Quigley-Hein Plaque Index (Turesky modification) and Löe-Silness Gingival Index (GI). Gingival severity was also measured by the percentage of sites with positive gingival bleeding. During six weeks, oral hygiene consisted of brushing twice daily with a toothbrush and toothpaste and rising with their assigned mouthwash. Plaque and gingival parameters were assessed at baseline, after four and six weeks of product use. Statistical analyses were performed separately for plaque and gingival indices, by ANOVA, paired t-test and ANCOVA (α < 0.05). After 4 and 6 weeks, all mouthwashes groups presented statistically significant reductions in plaque and gingival parameters as compared to baseline. In comparison to the positive control, the test group presented additional reductions in dental plaque of 19.8% and 16.8%, after 4 and 6 weeks, respectively. For GI, the additional reductions in the test group were 9.7% and 14.3%, at 4 and 6 weeks, respectively. The test group showed additional reduction of 35.3% and 54.5% in the gingival severity, at week 4 and 6, respectively. It is concluded that the mouthwash containing CPC and zinc lactate presents significant anti-plaque and anti-gingivitis effects as compared to positive and negative control mouthwashes.
Abstract The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy in supragingival plaque removal of two soft-bristle toothbrushes. Seventy volunteers were allocated randomly to the Colgate Slim Soft or Curaprox CS5460 toothbrush grourps. At baseline appointment, volunteers underwent plaque examination using the Rustogi Modification of the Navy Plaque Index. Under supervision, they then brushed their teeth for 1minute with their assigned toothbrushes and the plaque examination was repeated. Volunteers performed daily oral hygiene with their assigned toothbrush and a regular dentifrice provided by the researchers for 7 days. The baseline experimental procedures were then repeated. Separate analyses of variance were performed for the whole-mouth, interproximal, and gumline plaque scores (p < 0.05). No difference in baseline pre-brushing scores was found between groups. After a single toothbrushing, the mean plaque score was significantly reduced in both groups (p < 0.05), with greater reduction of whole-mouth and interproximal plaque scores observed in the SlimSoft group compared with the Curaprox group (p < 0.05). After 7 days, the SlimSoft group showed greater reduction of the whole-mouth and interproximal plaque scores compared with the Curaprox group (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the SlimSoft toothbrush presented greater efficacy in supragingival plaque removal than did the Curaprox CS5460 toothbrush, as reflected by whole-mouth and interproximal plaque scores.
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of alcohol and/or tobacco exposure on spontaneous alveolar bone loss in Wistar rats. Twenty-four, male, 60 day-old, Wistar rats were assigned to 4 groups: Group 1 received 10 mL/kg of glucose solution (5%). Group 2 received 2 g/kg alcohol (20%). Group 3 was exposed to tobacco smoke (6 cigarettes/60 min). Group 4 received both interventions of groups 2 and 3. Alcohol was given by gastric gavage and cigarette exposure was performed using a forced ventilation chamber. After 30 days, animals were sacrificed and the upper maxillae removed and defleshed. Morphometric analysis of alveolar bone loss (ABL) around the second molar was performed in standardized digital photographs. Statistical analysis was conducted using paired t-test, one-way ANOVA and occurrence of spontaneous periodontal disease (ABL ≥ 0.39 mm) was analyzed by Fisher's exact test. Significant differences in body weight were observed between all groups. Group 2 presented higher body weight as compared to the 3 other groups at 4 weeks (p≤0.05). Mean ABL values were 0.31 mm (±0.08), 0.29 mm (±0.07), 0.33 mm (±0.10), and 0.33 mm (±0.08) for groups 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. No significant differences were found among groups. In the analysis of occurrence of periodontal breakdown, alcohol exposure decreased the occurrence of ABL and cigarette exposure increased ABL. The combination of alcohol and cigarette exposure did not differ from the control group. Alcohol consumption decreased the occurrence of periodontal breakdown, while tobacco increased this rate.
O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar o efeito da exposição do álcool e/ou tabaco sobre a perda óssea alveolar (POA) espontânea em ratos Wistar. Vinte e quatro ratos, machos, com 60 dias de vida foram divididos em 4 grupos: Grupo 1 recebeu 10 mL/kg de solução de glicose (5%). Grupo 2 recebeu 2 g/kg de álcool (20%). Grupo 3 foi exposto a fumaça do tabaco (6 cigarros/60 min). Grupo 4 recebeu a mesma intervenção dos grupos 2 e 3. A solução de álcool foi dada por meio de gavagem e a exposição ao tabaco foi realizada por meio de câmara de ventilação forçada. Após 30 dias de experimento, os animais foram sacrificados e as maxilas removidas. Análise morfométrica da POA ao redor do segundo molar superior foi realizada de modo padronizada. A análise estatística dos dados foi realizada por meio de teste t pareado e ANOVA. Ocorrência de doença periodontal espontânea (POA ≥ 0,39 mm) foi realizada pelo teste exato de Fisher. Diferenças significativas no peso corporal médio foram observadas em todos os grupos. Grupo 2 apresentou maior peso corporal médio quando comparado aos outros 3 grupos ao fim do experimento (p≤0,05). A média de POA foi 0,31 mm (±0,08); 0,29 mm (±0,07); 0,33 mm (±0,10) e 0,33 mm (±0,08) para os grupos 1, 2, 3 e 4, respectivamente. Não houve diferenças significativas entre os grupos. Na análise de ocorrência de destruição periodontal, a exposição de álcool diminuiu sua ocorrência, enquanto que exposição ao tabaco aumentou a POA espontânea. A combinação de álcool e tabaco não diferiu do grupo controle