The effects of aluminum (Al) on the activities of antioxidant enzymes and ferritin expression were studied in cell suspension cultures of two varieties of Coffea arabica, Mundo Novo and Icatu, in medium with pH at 5.8. The cells were incubated with 300 µM Al3+, and the Al speciation as Al3+ was 1.45% of the mole fraction. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were increased in Mundo Novo, whereas glutathione reductase (GR) and guaiacol peroxidase (GPOX) activities remained unchanged. SOD, GR, and GST activities were increased in Icatu, while CAT activity was not changed, and GPOX activity decreased. The expression of two ferritin genes (CaFer1 and CaFer2) were analyzed by Real-Time PCR. Al caused a downregulation of CaFER1 expression and no changes of CaFER2 expression in both varieties. The Western blot showed no alteration in ferritin protein levels in Mundo Novo and a decrease in Icatu. The differential enzymes responses indicate that the response to Al is variety-dependent.
Foram estudadas a atividade de enzimas antioxidantes e a expressão da ferritina em culturas celulares de duas variedades de Coffea arabica, Mundo Novo e Icatu, tratadas com alumínio (Al) em meio de cultura com pH 5.8. As células foram incubadas com 300 µM Al3+, e a especiação do Al para Al3+ foi de 1.45%. Para Mundo Novo, a atividade da superóxido dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) e glutationa S-transferase (GST) aumentou, enquanto que a atividade da glutationa redutase (GR) e da guaiacol peroxidase (GPOX) permaneceu inalterada. Para Icatu, a atividade da SOD, GR e GST aumentou, a atividade da CAT não se alterou e da GPOX diminuiu. Foram analisadas a expressão de dois transcritos da ferritina (CaFer1 e CaFer2) por meio de PCR em Tempo Real. O Al provocou queda na expressão do CaFER1 e nenhuma alteração em CaFER2 nas duas variedades. Não houve alteração no acúmulo de ferritina para Mundo Novo, mas uma diminuição para Icatu. A resposta diferencial das enzimas indica que a resposta antioxidante é variedade dependente.
Fruits were collected from trees of Coffea arabica cv. Obatã grown at Mococa and Adamantina in São Paulo State, Brazil, which are regions with marked differences in air temperature that produce coffee with distinct qualities. Mococa is a cooler location that produces high-quality coffee, whereas coffee from Adamantina is of lower quality. The amino acid and protein contents, amino acid profile, and proteinase activity and type in endosperm protein extracts were analysed. Proteinase genes were identified, and their expression was assayed. All results indicate that temperature plays a role in controlling proteinase activity in coffee endosperm. Proteinase activity was higher in the endosperm of immature fruits from Adamantina, which was correlated with higher amino acid content, changes in the amino acid profile, and increased gene expression. Cysteine proteinases were the main class of proteinases in the protein extracts. These data suggest that temperature plays an important role in coffee quality by altering nitrogen compound composition.