Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the in vivo response of photobiomodulation therapy associated with norbixin-based poly(hydroxybutyrate) membrane (PHB) in tenotomized calcaneal tendon. Methods: Thirty rats were randomly allocated to six groups (n=5 each): LED groups (L1, L2 and L3) and membrane + LED groups (ML1, ML2 and ML3). The right calcaneal tendons of all animals were sectioned transversely and were irradiated with LED daily, one hour after surgery every 24 hours, until the day of euthanasia. At the end of the experiments the tendons were removed for histological analysis. Results: The histological analysis showed a significant reduction in inflammatory cells in the ML1, ML2 and ML3 groups (p=0.0056, p=0.0018 and p<0.0001, respectively) compared to those in the LED group. There was greater proliferation of fibroblasts in the ML1 (p<0.0001) and L3 (p<0.0001) groups. A higher concentration of type I collagen was also observed in the ML1 group (p=0.0043) replacing type III collagen. Conclusion: Photobiomodulation in association with norbixin-based PHB membrane led to control of the inflammatory process. However, it did not favor fibroblast proliferation and did not optimize type I collagen formation in the expected stage of the repair process.
Abstract Purpose: To determine the efficacy of norbixin-based poly(hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) membranes for Achilles tendon repair. Methods: Thirty rats were submitted to total tenotomy surgery of the right Achilles tendon and divided into two groups (control and membrane; n = 15 each), which were further subdivided into three subgroups (days 7, 14, and 21; n = 5 each). Samples were analyzed histologically. Results: Histological analysis showed a significant reduction in inflammatory infiltrates on days 7, 14 (p < 0.0001 for both), and 21 (p = 0.0004) in the membrane group compared to that in the control group. There was also a significant decrease in the number of fibroblasts in the control group on days 7, 14 (p < 0.0001), and 21 (p = 0.0032). Further, an increase in type I collagen deposition was observed in the membrane group compared to that in the control group on days 7 (p = 0.0133) and 14 (p = 0.0107). Conclusion: Treatment with norbixin-based PHB membranes reduces the inflammatory response, increases fibroblast proliferation, and improves collagen production in the tendon repair region, especially between days 7 and 14.
ABSTRACT Purpose: To report our initial experience using a patient-specific 3D-printed renal tumor model for the surgical planning of a complex heminephrectomy in a horseshoe kidney. Materials and Methods: We selected a clinical case for a complex laparoscopic surgery consisting in a 53 year-old male presenting a local recurrence of a renal tumor in a horseshoe kidney with aberrant vascularisation previously treated with a laparoscopic partial nephrectomy. He is now proposed for a laparoscopic left heminephrectomy. Along with conventional imaging, a real-size 3D-printed renal model was used to plan de surgical approach. The perioperative experience of the surgical team was recorded. Results: The surgical team found the patient-specific 3D printed model useful for a better understanding of the anatomy and an easier surgical planning. Conclusion: The use of patient-specific 3D-printed renal models seem to be helpful for the surgical planning in complex renal tumors.
OBJECTIVES: Ischemic stroke (IS) or transient ischemic attack (TIA) history is present in 4-17% of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). This subgroup of patients is at high risk for both ischemic and bleeding events. The aim of this study was to determine the role of platelet aggregability, coagulation and endogenous fibrinolysis in patients with CAD and previous IS or TIA. METHODS: A prospective case-control study that included 140 stable CAD patients divided into two groups: the CASE group (those with a previous IS/TIA, n=70) and the CONTROL group (those without a previous IS/TIA, n=70). Platelet aggregability (VerifyNow Aspirin® and VerifyNow P2Y12®), coagulation (fibrinogen and thromboelastography by Reorox®) and endogenous fibrinolysis (D dimer and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1) were evaluated. RESULTS: Patients in the CASE group presented significantly higher systolic blood pressure levels (135.84±16.09 vs 123.68±16.11, p<0.01), significantly more previous CABG (25.71% vs 10%, p=0.015) and significantly higher calcium channel blocker usage (42.86% vs 24.29%, p=0.02) than those in the control group. In the adjusted models, low triglyceride values, low hemoglobin values and higher systolic blood pressure were significantly associated with previous IS/TIA (CASE group). Most importantly, platelet aggregability, coagulation and fibrinolysis tests were not independently associated with previous cerebrovascular ischemic events (CASE group). CONCLUSION: Platelet aggregability, coagulation and endogenous fibrinolysis showed similar results among CAD patients with and without previous IS/TIA. Therefore, it remains necessary to identify other targets to explain the higher bleeding risk presented by these patients.
RESUMO Introdução As adaptações estruturais e mecânicas de miócitos do ventrículo direito (VD) em resposta à hipertensão associada ao treinamento aeróbio de baixa intensidade (TABI) não foram estudadas em modelos experimentais de ratos. Objetivo Determinar os efeitos do TABI sobre as propriedades estruturais e mecânicas de miócitos do VD em ratos espontaneamente hipertensos (SHR). Métodos Ratos SHR e ratos Wistar machos e normotensos (idade: 16 semanas) foram distribuídos em grupos (n = 7): WIS (Wistar controle); SHR-C (SHR controle) e SHR-T (SHR treinados; 60 min/dia, 50% a 60% da capacidade máxima de exercício, 5 dias/semana por 8 semanas). Procedeu-se à medição de pressão arterial sistólica (PAS), dimensões dos miócitos isolados do VD, contratilidade, transiente intracelular de Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) e de proteínas reguladoras de Ca2+. A análise estatística foi realizada por ANOVA one-way, seguida por teste de Tukey post hoc (α = 5%). Resultados O TABI reduziu a PAS nos animais SHR (SHR-C, 164 ± 2 mmHg vs. SHR-T, 152 ± 4 mmHg; P < 0,05). A hipertensão aumentou o comprimento celular (WIS, 156,8 ± 2,7 µm; SHR-C, 166,6 ± 3,1 µm; P < 0,05), mas não afetou a largura ou o volume (P > 0,05). O TABI não alterou as dimensões celulares nos SHR-T. Nem a hipertensão nem o TABI afetaram a contratilidade dos miócitos ou a expressão das proteínas reguladoras do Ca2+ no VD dos grupos SHR-C e SHR-T. A hipertensão não afetou a amplitude do transiente de [Ca2+]i e o tempo até a metade do nível de repouso (P > 0,05), mas aumentou o tempo até o pico (WIS, 58 ± 1 msvs. SHR-C, 79 ± 2 ms; P < 0,05). O TABI aumentou a amplitude do transiente de [Ca2+]i (WIS, 2,28 ± 0,07 F/F0 e SHR-C, 2,48 ± 0,08 F/F0 vs. SHR-T, 2,87 ± 0,08 F/F0 P < 0,05), mas não alterou os tempos até o pico e a metade do nível de repouso. Conclusão O TABI não teve efeito sobre as propriedades estruturais e mecânicas de miócitos do VD de SHR, embora tenha aumentado a amplitude do transiente de [Ca2+]i e reduzido a PAS. Nível de evidência I, Estudos terapêuticos – Investigação dos resultados do tratamento.
ABSTRACT Introduction The structural and mechanical adaptations of the right ventricular (RV) myocytes in response to hypertension associated with low-intensity endurance training (LIET) have not been studied in experimental models. Objective To determine the effects of LIET on the structural and mechanical properties of RV myocytes in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Methods Male SHRs and normotensive Wistar rats (age: 16 weeks) were allocated to groups (n=7): WIS (Wistar Controls); SHR-C (SHR Controls) and SHR-T (SHR Trained; 60 min/day, 50-60% of maximal exercise capacity, 5 days/week for 8 weeks). Systolic arterial pressure (SAP), isolated RV myocyte dimensions, contractility, intracellular Ca2+ transient ([Ca2+]i), and ventricular Ca2+ regulatory proteins were measured. The statistical analysis was performed by one-way ANOVA followed by the Tukey post hoc test (α=5%). Results LIET reduced the SAP in SHR animals (SHR-C, 164 ± 2 mmHg vs. SHR-T, 152 ± 4 mmHg; P<0.05). Hypertension increased cell length (WIS, 156.8 ± 2.7 µm; SHR-C, 166.6 ± 3.1 µm; P<0.05) but did not affect cell width or volume (P>0.05). LIET did not change the cell dimensions in the SHR-T. Neither hypertension nor LIET affected myocyte contractility or the expression of Ca2+ regulatory proteins in the RV of the SHR-C and SHR-T groups. Hypertension did not affect the amplitude of the [Ca2+]i transient or the time to half resting level (P>0.05), but increased the time to peak (WIS, 58 ± 1 ms vs. SHR-C, 79 ± 2 ms; P<0.05). LIET increased the amplitude of the [Ca2+]i transient (WIS, 2.28 ± 0.07 F/F0 and SHR-C, 2.48 ± 0.08 F/F0 vs. SHR-T, 2.87 ± 0.08 F/F0 P<0.05), but did not alter the times to peak or to half resting level. Conclusion LIET had no effect on the structural and mechanical properties of RV myocytes in the SHRs, although it increased the amplitude of the [Ca2+]i transient and reduced the SAP. Level of evidence I, Therapeutic Studies - Investigating the Results of Treatment.
RESUMEN Introducción Las adaptaciones estructurales y mecánicas de los miocitos del ventrículo derecho (VD) en respuesta a la hipertensión asociada al entrenamiento de resistencia de baja intensidad (ERBI) no se han estudiado en modelos experimentales de ratas. Objetivo Determinar los efectos del ERBI sobre las propiedades estructurales y mecánicas de los miocitos del VD en ratas espontáneamente hipertensas (SHR). Métodos Ratas SHR y ratas Wistar machos y normotensas (edad: 16 semanas) fueron distribuidas en grupos (n = 7): WIS (Wistar controle); SHR-C (SHR controle) y SHR-T (SHR entrenado; 60 min/día, el 50% a 60% de la capacidad máxima de ejercicio, 5 días/semana por 8 semanas). Se midieron presión arterial sistólica (PAS), dimensiones de los miocitos aislados del VD, contractilidad, transitorio intracelular de Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) y proteínas reguladoras de Ca2+. El análisis estadístico se realizó mediante ANOVA one-way seguida por la prueba de Tukey post hoc (α = 5%). Resultados El ERBI redujo la PAS en los animales SHR (SHR-C, 164 ± 2 mmHg contra SHR-T 152 ± 4 mmHg, P < 0,05). La hipertensión aumentó la longitud de la célula (WIS, 156,8 ± 2,7 μm, SHR-C, 166,6 ± 3,1 μm; P < 0,05), pero no afectó el ancho o el volumen (P > 0,05). El ERBI no alteró las dimensiones de la célula en SHR-T. Ni la hipertensión y ni el ERBI afectaron la contractilidad de los miocitos o la expresión de proteínas reguladoras de Ca2+ en el VD de los grupos SHR-C y SHR-T. La hipertensión no afectó la amplitud del transitorio de [Ca2+]i y el tiempo hasta la mitad del nivel de reposo (P > 0,05), pero aumentó tiempo hasta el pico (WIS, 58 ± 1 ms contra SHR-C, 79 ± 2 ms; P < 0,05). El ERBI aumentó la amplitud del transitorio de [Ca2+]i (WIS, 2,28 ± 0,07 F/F0 y SHR-C, 2,48 ± 0,08 F/F0 contra SHR-T, 2,87 ± 0,08 F/F0 P < 0,05), pero no alteró los tiempos hasta el pico y la mitad del nivel de reposo. Conclusión El ERBI no tuvo efecto sobre las propiedades estructurales y mecánicas de los miocitos del VD de SHR, aunque aumentó la amplitud del transitorio de [Ca2+]i y redujo la PAS. Nivel de Evidencia I, Estudios terapéuticos - Investigación de los resultados del tratamiento.
OBJECTIVE: To test whether swimming training benefits femoral neck strength in young diabetic rats under insulin therapy. METHODS: A total of 60 male Wistar rats (age: 40 days) were divided equally into the following six groups: control sedentary, control exercise, diabetic sedentary, diabetic exercise, diabetic sedentary plus insulin and diabetic exercise plus insulin. Diabetes was induced with a unique intraperitoneal injection (60 mg/kg body weight) of streptozotocin. Seven days after the injection and after 12 hours of fasting, the animals with blood glucose levels ≥300 mg/dL were considered diabetic. Seven days after the induction of diabetes, the animals in the exercise groups were subjected to progressive swimming training (final week: 90 min/day; 5 days/week; 5% load) for eight weeks. The animals in the insulin groups received a daily dose of insulin (2-4 U/day) for the same period. RESULTS: Severe streptozotocin-induced diabetes reduced the structural properties of the femoral neck (trabecular bone volume, trabecular thickness and collagen fiber content). The femoral neck mechanical properties (maximum load and tenacity) were also impaired in the diabetic rats. Insulin therapy partially reversed the damage induced by diabetes on the structural properties of the bone and mitigated the reductions in the mechanical properties of the bone. The combination of therapies further increased the femoral neck trabecular bone volume (∼30%), trabecular thickness (∼24%), collagen type I (∼19%) and type III (∼13%) fiber contents, maximum load (∼25%) and tenacity (∼14%). CONCLUSIONS: Eight weeks of swimming training potentiates the recovery of femoral neck strength in young rats with severe streptozotocin-induced diabetes under insulin therapy.
ABSTRACT The cultivation of second-harvest with soybean crop after first-harvest with maize crop has become an alternative to aggregate income to farmers in the South region of Brazil. However, there is little information about this cropping system in this region. The aims of this study were to: (i) evaluate the agronomic performance of soybean (Glycine max L.) cultivars growing in second-harvest during the summer; and (ii) evaluate the genetic divergence of the cultivars based on qualitative and quantitative traits. To do this, 18 soybean cultivars were evaluated in three field trials, sown during January in the northwestern region of Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. In each experiment, a randomized block design with four replicates was used. Five quantitative traits (representing the agronomic performance of the cultivars) and 12 qualitative traits (morphological descriptors) were assessed aiming at studying the genetic divergence. Variance components and genetic parameters were estimated using mixed models and BLUPs for genotypes were estimated for each quantitative trait. The cultivars FPS Iguaçu RR and BMX Turbo RR have good agronomic performance and are, based on quantitative and qualitative traits, genetically distant. These cultivars have shown agronomic features that allow their cultivation in the second-harvest in the northwestern of Rio Grande do Sul in addition to be potential genitors for future soybean breeding programs.
Resumo Fundamento: Ratos espontaneamente hipertensos (SHR) apresentam déficits no balanço térmico durante o exercício físico. Objetivo: Avaliar os efeitos do treinamento físico de baixa intensidade sobre o balanço térmico de ratos hipertensos submetidos a um protocolo de exercício físico agudo. Métodos: Ratos machos Wistar e SHR, com 16 semanas de idade, foram divididos em quatro grupos experimentais: Wistar controle (WIS-C), Wistar treinado (WIS-T), SHR controle (SHR-C) e SHR treinado (SHR-T). O treinamento físico em esteira rolante foi realizado durante 12 semanas. A pressão arterial, a frequência cardíaca de repouso e o tempo de exercício foram medidos previamente e após o programa de treinamento físico. Após o programa de treinamento físico, um sensor de temperatura foi implantado na região intraperitoneal e os ratos foram submetidos a um protocolo de exercício físico agudo com registros contínuos da temperatura corporal interna, temperatura da pele da cauda e do consumo de oxigênio até a fadiga. A eficiência mecânica (EM), o trabalho, o limiar e a sensibilidade para dissipação de calor foram calculados. Para as análises estatísticas o nível de significância adotado foi de 5%. Resultados: O treinamento físico e a hipertensão arterial não alteraram o balanço térmico durante o exercício físico. O grupo WIS-T quando comparado ao WIS-C, apresentou maior produção de calor, que foi contrabalanceado por uma maior dissipação de calor. Os animais hipertensos apresentaram menor EM em comparação aos animais normotensos, e o treinamento físico não foi capaz de reverter esta alteração. Conclusão: O treinamento físico de baixa intensidade não provocou alterações no balanço térmico de ratos hipertensos submetidos a um protocolo de exercício físico agudo.
Abstract Background: Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) show deficit in thermal balance during physical exercise. Objective: To assess the effects of low-intensity physical exercise training on thermal balance of hypertensive rats undergoing an acute exercise protocol. Methods: Sixteen-week-old male Wistar rats and SHR were allocated into four groups: control Wistar rats (C-WIS), trained Wistar (T-WIS), control SHR (C-SHR) and trained SHR (T-SHR). Treadmill exercise training was performed for 12 weeks. Blood pressure, resting heart rate and total exercise time was measured before and after the physical exercise program. After the exercise program, a temperature sensor was implanted in the abdominal cavity, and the animals subjected to an acute exercise protocol, during which internal body temperature, tail skin temperature and oxygen consumption until fatigue were continuously recorded. Mechanical efficiency (ME), work, heat dissipation threshold and sensitivity were calculated. Statistical significance was set at 5%. Results: Physical training and hypertension had no effect on thermal balance during physical exercise. Compared with C-WIS, the T-WIS group showed higher heat production, which was counterbalanced by higher heat dissipation. Hypertensive rats showed lower ME than normotensive rats, which was not reversed by the physical training. Conclusion: Low-intensity physical training did not affect thermal balance in SHR subjected to acute exercise.
Abstract The objective of the study was to systematically review the effects of the environmental thermal stress on thermoregulation in soccer players. We analyzed studies from databases belonging to the Periódicos Capes portal. The PRISMA method was used to perform the review. Soccer players exhibit high increase in body temperature associated with reduction in physical performance during game in warm environment. Concerning strategies to mitigate such impairment (e.g. cooling, hydration, acclimatization, warm up and heating), the small number of studies analyzed (n = 18) showed controversial results, which warrants more studies.
Resumen El objetivo del estudio fue llevar a cabo una revisión sistemática sobre los efectos del estrés térmico ambiental en la termorregulación de jugadores de fútbol. Se evaluaron estudios en bases de datos pertenecientes al portal Periódicos Capes. Se empleó el método PRISMA para el desarrollo de la revisión. Los jugadores de fútbol presentan un gran aumento de la temperatura corporal asociada con la reducción de rendimiento físico durante el juego en un entorno caluroso. En cuanto a las estrategias para disminuir esta alteración (p. ej., enfriamiento, hidratación, aclimatación y calentamiento), el pequeño número de trabajos encontrados (n= 18) presentan resultados controvertidos, por lo que es necesaria la realización de más estudios.
Resumo O objetivo do estudo foi fazer uma revisão sistemática acerca dos efeitos do estresse térmico ambiental sobre a termorregulação em jogadores de futebol. Foram avaliados estudos em bases de dados pertencentes ao portal Periódicos Capes. Foi empregado o método Prisma para o desenvolvimento da revisão. Jogadores de futebol apresentam grande aumento da temperatura corporal associada à redução de desempenho físico durante o jogo em ambiente quente. Em relação às estratégias para amenizar esse prejuízo (ex. resfriamento, hidratação, aclimatação e aquecimento), o pequeno número de trabalhos encontrado (n = 18) apresenta resultados controversos, portanto são necessários mais estudos.
Abstract Accidental collision of striking objects, such as a supply vessel, into the side panel of a FPSO highly influences its ultimate strength assessment. An empirical formula for predicting the ultimate strength of damaged stiffened panels under combined loading of shear and longitudinal compression is empirically derived in this work based on curve fitting of quasi-static nonlinear finite element (FE) analyses. Initial imperfections are introduced by scaling the first buckling mode shape and the damage is caused by residual deformation from a rigid sphere indentation. A pure shear loading is applied at several levels followed by compression loading using the modified Riks method for a number of sphere indentation damages. The suggested formula for a typical FPSO stiffened side shell panel presented an excellent correlation with the nonlinear FE results and can be particularly useful in the preliminary design phase (no damage) and for a quick estimation of the panel residual strength with indentation damage.
Abstract The aim of this study was to identify the immunoexpression of methallothionein in oral squamous cell carcinoma as well as to address the correlation with clinical features, histological grade and patient survival. Samples were collected from 93 patients with tongue squamous cell carcinoma who presented for follow-up. Immunohistochemical expression of methallothionein in all groups was performed. The scoring system has previously been published by Tsurutani in 2005, which is based on intensity and distribution of staining. We used Kappa index to evaluate the degree of observers’ agreement under metallothionein immunostaining and histological grade. Associations between methallothionein expression and clinical parameters (age, gender, smoking, tumor size, lymph node metastasis and disease stage) were examined for statistical significance using the chi-squared test. The overall survival rates were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method and the relationship between protein expression and survival was compared using the log-rank test (p < 0.05). Our results showed no statistically significant association between methallothionein immunostaining and the selected clinicopathological variables. Immunohistochemistry results showed positive nuclear immunostaining for metallothionein in 62,37% (58/93) and negative for metallothionein 37,63% (35/93). The degree of examiners agreement by Kappa varied from substantial to perfect and both metallothionein immunostaining and histological grade were explored. The present study suggests that positive methallothionein expression found in tongue squamous cell carcinoma may not help to predict survival in the analyzed samples, as well as no relation between the protein and histological grade and clinical features was observed. In conclusion, the present study suggests that metallothionein is not associated with tongue squamous cell carcinoma clinicopathological characteristics and aggressiveness.
Fatty acid esters (methyl and ethyl) prepared from babassu nut oil were blended with the respective esters from soybean oil. These binary blends (babassu:soybean) were made in proportions of 10:90, 20:80, 30:70, 40:60, and 50:50 (vol%). The ester content of all the blends was higher than 96.5%, which is the minimum value required by the Brazilian National Agency of Petroleum, Natural Gas and Biofuels (Agência Nacional do Petróleo, Gás Natural e Biocombustíveis, ANP). The thermal properties of the babassu, soybean and binary mixtures of esters were investigated by thermogravimetry-differential thermogravimetry (TG/DTG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The thermal stability of the blended biodiesels decreased as the total contents of the babassu esters increased. From the experiments it was found that babassu methanol biodiesel is stable up to 49.6 ºC and the ethanol biodiesel is stable up to 53.7 ºC in air. The methyl esters blends were thermally stable up to 83.2 and 56.8 ºC, for 90:10 and 50:50 blends (soybean:babassu), respectively. The ethyl ester blends presented values of temperature ranges somewhat higher than the methyl esters, such as 85.2 and 64.5 ºC for 90:10 and 50:50 blends, respectively. The esters from babassu oil have satisfactory performance at low temperatures with respect to the point of crystallization, which were below –9.8 ºC for ethylic esters and –8.5 ºC for methylic esters. A good correlation between the crystallization onset temperature and the increase in the concentration of the babassu oil esters was obtained in the mixtures analyses. In the 50:50 combination (babassu:soybean), the crystallization onset temperature were –6.73 and –9.12 ºC for methyl and ethyl esters, respectively.
Abstract Background: Regulation of intracellular calcium (Ca2+) in cardiomyocytes is altered by hypertension; and aerobic exercise brings benefits to hypertensive individuals. Objective: To verify the effects of aerobic exercise training on contractility and intracellular calcium (Ca2+) transients of cardiomyocytes and on the expression of microRNA 214 (miR-214) in the left ventricle of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Methods: SHR and normotensive Wistar rats of 16 weeks were divided into 4 groups -sedentary hypertensive (SH); trained hypertensive (TH); sedentary normotensive (SN); and trained normotensive (TN). Animals of the TH and TN groups were subjected to treadmill running program, 5 days/week, 1 hour/day at 60-70% of maximum running velocity for 8 weeks. We adopted a p ≤ 0.05 as significance level for all comparisons. Results: Exercise training reduced systolic arterial pressure in hypertensive rats. In normotensive rats, exercise training reduced the time to 50% cell relaxation and the time to peak contraction and increased the time to 50% decay of the intracellular Ca2+ transients. In SHR, exercise increased the amplitude and reduced the time to 50% decay of Ca2+ transients. Exercise training increased the expression of miR-214 in hypertensive rats only. Conclusion: The aerobic training applied in this study increased the availability of intracellular Ca2+ and accelerated the sequestration of these ions in left ventricular myocytes of hypertensive rats, despite increased expression of miR-214 and maintenance of cell contractility.
Resumo Fundamento: A regulação intracelular de cálcio (Ca2+) em cardiomiócitos é alterada pela hipertensão, e o exercício físico aeróbico traz benefícios para hipertensos. Objetivo: Verificar os efeitos do treinamento físico aeróbico sobre a contratilidade e a concentração intracelular de Ca2+ transitória em miócitos e a expressão do microRNA 214 no ventrículo esquerdo (VE) de ratos espontaneamente hipertensos (SHR). Métodos: SHR e ratos Wistar normotensos com 16 semanas de idade foram divididos em 4 grupos de 13 animais cada: hipertenso sedentário (HS); hipertenso treinado (HT); normotenso sedentário (NS); normotenso treinado (NT). Os animais dos grupos HT e NT foram submetidos a um programa de treinamento progressivo de corrida em esteira, 5 dias/semana, 1 hora/dia, em intensidade de 60-70% da velocidade máxima de corrida, durante 8 semanas. Adotou-se p ≤ 0,05 como nível de significância em todas as comparações. Resultados: O treinamento físico reduziu a pressão arterial sistólica nos animais hipertensos. Nos animais normotensos, o treinamento físico reduziu o tempo para 50% de relaxamento celular e o tempo para o pico de contração celular, mas aumentou o tempo para 50% de decaimento da concentração intracelular de Ca2+ transitória. Nos animais SHR, o treinamento físico aumentou a amplitude e reduziu o tempo para 50% de decaimento da concentração intracelular de Ca2+ transitória, sem alterar a contratilidade celular. O treinamento físico aumentou a expressão do miR-214 apenas nos animais hipertensos. Conclusão: O treinamento aeróbico utilizado aumenta a disponibilidade e acelera o sequestro de Ca2+ intracelular em miócitos do VE de ratos hipertensos, apesar do aumento da expressão de miR-214 e da manutenção da contratilidade celular.
ABSTRACT This study aims to determine the most suitable model to estimate the leaf area of dwarf pigeon pea in function of the leaf central leaflet dimension. Six samplings of 200 leaves were performed in the first experiment, at 36, 42, 50, 56, 64, and 72 days after emergence (DAE). In the second experiment, seven samplings of 200 leaves were performed at 29, 36, 43, 49, 57, 65, and 70 DAE, totaling 2600 leaves. The length (L) and width (W) of the central leaflet were measured in all leaves composed by left, central, and right leaflets, the product of length times width (LW) was calculated, and the leaf area (Y – sum of left, central, and right leaflet areas) was determined by digital images. Linear, power, quadratic, and cubic models of Y as function of L, W, and LW were built using data from the second experiment. Leaves from the first experiment were used to validate the models. In dwarf pigeon pea, the linear (Ŷ = – 0.4088 + 1.6669x, R2 = 0.9790) is preferable, but power (Ŷ = 1.6097x1.0065, R2 = 0.9766), quadratic (Ŷ = – 0.3625 + 1.663x + 0.00007x2, R2 = 0.9790), and cubic (Ŷ = 0.7216 + 1.522x + 0.005x2 – 5E–05x3, R2 = 0.9791) models in function of LW are also suitable to estimate the leaf area obtained by digital images. The power model (Ŷ = 5.2508x1.7868, R2 = 0.95) based on the central leaflet width is less laborious because requires only one variable, but it presents accuracy reduction.